AN ACTUAL FAMILY OF CHABUK SAWARS STARTING FROM AFGHANISTAN; WITH CONNECTIONS IN PAKISTAN (LAHORE) AND VARIOUS CITIES IN INDIA.
In 2017 I received communication from a truck driver in Saudia Arabia, with his family settled there. He was sending me a lot of emails in Roman Urdu, and with lot of details. He told me that they were twelve brothers, and had connections in various cities of India. But their main city was SALUMBAR, and in it was their Mohalla, which was 500 years old. The city was basically a Muslim city and was composed of various ethnic groups, mainly Mirza, Pathan, Nayak, Sheikh and others, but all of them were referred as of Turkish origin. He narrated his family as:
MOHIUDDIN KHAN, Son of SAALEH MUHAMMED KHAN, Son of MUHAMMED FATEH BAKSH KHAN CHABUK SAWAR, Son of MUHAMMED NOOR BAKSH CHABUK SAWAR, Son of RAHMAT KHAN CHABUK SAWAR, Son of RAHEEM KHAN CHABUK SAWAR, Son of RAJU KHAN CHABUK SAWAR.
He says there is family resemblance to a certain Prince Muhammed Raheem Khan of Uzbekistan. It means that some migration occurred there too.
One of their elder NOOR KHAN was murdered in Bhadeswar, and his Mazar is still there. He was poisoned through his food by his slave. His eldest and only son BHURRE KHAN JI, as a child, was taken pity upon by the Raja of Mewar and given a jageer. This occurred around 1800 AD. The family spread over many cities.
Mohiuddin Khan says that the family tree starts from either father and son, or two brothers, namely RAJO JI and KHAJO JI. It is the start of the Chabuk Sawars perhaps even from Lahore, as told by an old lady of that family.
And what about the Gul Bahar colony, some miles away from Kabul, Afghanistan? Isolated from other places, a lush green area, famous for horses and Chabuk Sawars. We will explore that later.
A COARSE BLACK DRESS, CONTAMINIATED NAPPI FISH, MURDERED PARENTS: HELPLESS; AMEENA MUGHAL PRINCESS, DAUGHTER OF SHAH SHUJA; PREGNANT BY HEATHEN KING.
In 1927 Babu Astosh Chaudhury of Chittagong got enamoured with a different Bengali Ballad, which he picked up from a host of local singers, mainly first a gypsy singer, then another singer Makbul, a whimsical singer Belait Ali, and another Manjhi from a boat, who used to sing it in the night. It affected Babu Astosh immensely and he saw neglected and forgotten, historical truth in it, so he sent it to a scholar of University of Calcutta, Dinesh Chandra Sen. It was a lament of a Mughal Princess in Arrakan, namely Ameena and she was the daughter of Prince Shah Shuja, son of Emperor Shah Jahan. And who was this Shah Shuja and what was he doing in Arrakan?
The story of the Mughal Prince is narrated by many people. It includes the rascal Bernier, as well as some Muslim writers. It is about the rebellion of the four sons of Shah Jahan and their fight with each other. The most able warrior was Aurangzeb Alamgeer and he was not liked by the father or by the other three brothers. The fate of Shah Shuja hung in a balance as he had been defeated two times by Aurangzeb. He decided to flee the safety of his home domain Bengal to the Burmese land and the territory of Arrakan. Bernier says he went on a Portuguese ship, while Muslim writers say he went on an elephant cavalcade through the jungle of Burma. He was received by the King of Arrakan with great pomp. The King offered him place to live and the hands of his own daughter. Prince Shah Shuja accepted the offer, but in return the heathen King wanted the hands of Ameena, daughter of Shah Shuja. Shah Shuja was in no mood to submit to this insult, and refused, As a result fight occurred between both parties and King of Arrakan had the whole Shuja family thrown in the sea. The wife of the Prince and one daughter died in the sea, while it is reputed that somehow Shah Shuja escaped the drowning incident. For it is seen that he finally came to the Mazar of Nangiana in Sargodha and spent the last years of his life there and is buried in the mazar. Proof exists nowhere but the speculation looks fine.
King Shudarma of Arrakan kidnapped Princess Ameena from her father’s camp and threw the rest of the family in the sea. The ballad records the tragedy of the Princess, used to the best in the world, she was forced to wear coarse black dress and eat NAPPI every day, a dish made of contaminated fish and dog’s tongue. The Mughals had recorded their attitude towards the people of Arrakan, and even Emperor Jahangeer had called them animals. Ameena was pregnant, but the King had no respect for same, and had her killed too. Or she escaped to Chittagong. Open to speculation. Centuries later the ballad of the LAMENT OF DAUGHTER OF SHAH SHUJA was still being sung by Bengali singers. It is on record now and we have added it to blog, as an attachment. The rise and fall of dynasty are a divine principle, and it opens our eyes to the tragedy of life itself.
THE MOHALLA OF CHABUK SAWARAN IN LAHORE; FROM WHERE DID THESE HORSE RIDERS COME HERE?
The Mohalla is famous for artists, architects, poets, historians, journalists, preachers and what not? And from where comes the Horse Riders? A registration deed daily 1170 AH has no mention of Chabuk Sawaran. Then sometime later, the place is famous as Mohalla of Horse riders.
The famous local historian Ahmad Baksh Yaqdil of the Chisti family of Lahore, describes his home as:
“Dewar Khana waqia Darul Sultanate Lahore, Mohalla Qazi Saderuddin Marhoom; Havelli Adina Beg Khan; Guzar Chabuk Sawaran; Kake Zayen; Mutasil Kocha Muhammed Sheryar Lahori; Mutasil Masjid Chinay Wali, mubina Hazrat Bahadur Shah Alamgeer Badshah; Feil Khana Shahnawaz Khan; Takia Sadaun; Katra Haji Aman ullah; Chotta Mufti Baqir.”
The description gives us the whole history of the area, but the Guzar Chabuk Sawaran reference is new, and it is late 18th, or early 19th century. It is being called Guzar Chabuk Sawaran. A show place of horse riders. Either showing off their horses, or their riding skills. Research on same goes way back in research on horses in the region itself.
A study of Elephants and horses in this region is like a study of the two-nation theory. The history of horses in this region is an uncharted territory. Some people have written about ancient horses. The Hindu epic Mahbharata mentions horses but as sacrificial animals. And relate them to Bhadeswar, historically known as Bhadvarti. History speaks of a shipwrecked Ismaeli ship in the coast of Rann of Kutch and the survival of seven thoroughbred horses. From these horses sprung the lineage of all thorough bred horses in the region. This reference is more than 1100 years old. It is strange that in a Surya temple the figure is repeated as Surya the Sun rides a chariot driven by seven horses. That is:
“The iconography of Surya in Hinduism varies with its texts. He is typically shown as a resplendent standing person holding lotus flower in both his hands, riding a chariot pulled by one or more horses typically seven. The seven horses are named after the seven meters of Sanskrit prosody: Gayatri, Brihati, Ushnih, Jagati, Trishtubha, Anushtubha and Pankti.” Seven a magic word. Strange that the ship wrecked horses were also seven.
But a study of major battles in the region show that Hindus preferred fighting on elephants and the Muslims loved to fight on horse backs. The fight of Muhammed bin Qasim and Raja Dahir was between elephants and horses. Research work is all possible on this aspect of history. Even the Central Asian Mongols invaded this region on back of horses. And this applies to most of the entrance of fighters to the region, including Ghaznavids, Tughlaqs, Lodhis, Mughals and Durranis. Strange that we hear of horses being used as sacrificing animals in Bhadeswar etc, and the strange part is that sculptures exist of Hindu rajas having sex with horses and these are there in famous temples. That is around 1250 AD, or about 800 years ago. Some images are included but cut to preserve sanctity of our writing. Check original on link:
The foreigners preferred horses for agility and speed of traveling. The Hindus preferred elephants for their might and relative safety for ground fighting. It is also related to class consciousness. On horseback all fighters fought on egalitarian footing, while on elephants the riders were in fact sitting on an upper stratum of things. Class consciousness in reality! No comradeship there. In any case horse history is worthy of extensive research.
In the Mughal times we hear of two horse markets in Lahore. One outside Taxalli Darwaza, and the other outside Delhi Darwaza, Lahore. Horses were brought here for sale. From where did these horses come from? There is an interesting reference about a Gul Bahar Colony, some 74 mile say from Kabul, which was a beautiful place from isolated from the world. Access to it was from a thin bridge. A gazetteer of Afghanistan describes it in detail. It was famous for horses. When Qazi Abdul Wahab who was the Qazi of Delhi under Aurangzeb Alamgeer, went after the Mimar family of Lahore, some member of the family fled to Gul Bahar. When they came back after forgiveness from Aurangzeb Alamgeer, did they bring the horse traders to Lahore from that place?
IT WAS OBVIOUS MUGHAL LADIES WOULD INDULGE IN PAINTING, BUT FEW SIGNED WORKS PRESERVED OF THEIR CREATIVE EFFORTS.
There must be many works done by Mughal lady artists, but protocol demanded that names be not given openly in the public. Even then we come across references, as well as signed names of Mughal miniatures. Some are copies of divergent Western art, as a stimulation for these ladies. But the greatest artist of Mughal household looks like Sahifah Bano, artist supreme. Not only there is a study of Shah Tahmasp by her, but also a work, in which she shows herself drawing and painting a miniature. Look at the standard of work of this artist. Wonderful!
Painting is associated with the name of Nur Jahan herself. But nothing signed of her has been discovered. This is not a complete list of those artists, but an indication of the work behind them. We will work on it more as time goes by. Till then enjoy the well-known works by them.
AN UNKNOWN EUNUCH OF MASJID WAZEER KHAN LAHORE
THE ENIGMA OF FAMILY OF MULLAH YUSUF KASHMEERI
NAZAK YUSUF KASHMEERI IN TRADITION OF YAQUT MUSTASIMI
A walk inside the Wazeer Khan Mosque Lahore reveals many names. A number of calligraphers are there. One is Mullah Yusuf Kashmeeri, who was also probably the first muezzin of the mosque and the same is mentioned in the letters of Imam Rabbani. Yusuf Kashmeeri was son of Ustad Haider Mimar, who had constructed a famous garden in Kashmeer for Empress Nur Jahan. The name is in an inscription on the garden itself. The family seem to have moved to Lahore. Yusuf had three sons, all famous calligraphers of their time. One was Muhammed Zaman, another Abdul Kareem and the third was Muhamed Saleh. Their names are on many manuscripts as well as inscriptions on Mughal Monuments. The name of Muhammed Saleh is inside the dome of the Gulabi Bagh mausoleum, attributed to Dai Anga. No problem there.
A hand written Quran dated 1071 AH , precarious condition due to water soiling, but the name of the calligrapher is intact. It cannot be read clearly in the way that the calligrapher has tried to hide his gender in same. It looks like it says that it is Faqeer Haqeer Nazak bin Yusuf Kashmeeri. But careful reading tells us something else. It can read as:
Al Faqeera Haqeer Nakzal bin Yusuf Kashmeeri
Al Faqeer Al Haqeer Nazak bin Yusuf Kashmeeri
Al Faqeera Haqeer Nazli bin Yusuf Kashmeeri.
But the simplest reading is that of NAZAK KASHMEERI. Nazak is not a proper name for a man, it can be a proper name for a woman, like Nazakat. But then it should say BINT YUSUF KASHMEERI. The solution lies in only one thing. This fifth child of Yusuf Kashmeeri was an eunuch and in the tradition of Yaqut Mustasimi, one of the greatest calligraphers in our Islamic history, doing his best within his gender. It is said that Yaqut used to write his Qurans siting on top of the minaret of a mosque in Baghdad. Perhaps our Nazak used to write Qurans on top of the minaret of the Wazeer Khan mosque Lahore. Allah bless his/her soul!
MUGHAL ARCHITECTURAL GEM NEXT MASJID WAZEER KHAN: THE MAUSOLEUM OF IMAM GHULAM MUHAMMED IMAM GAMU; STILL STANDING ALTHOUGH MANY OTHER GRAVES ARE NOW GONE.
From the year 1044 AH to this day, various people were associated with the Masjid Wazeer Khan Lahore. Obviously the most important is Nawab Wazeer Khan himself. But the more we study contemporary documents, the more of an enigma this man becomes in historical survey. The first surprising fact is revealed by the farman of the Wazeer Khan itself, when it says that Wazeer Khan was asking Asif Khan for donations for building the mosque. And other contemporary source of that very time, tells us that he was a thoroughly corrupt person and there was no transaction in Lahore, in which a percentage was not given to him. All this is documented. We are shown the house of Wazeer Khan through a documented photograph at Cambridge University, which was there till 1904 or something. In any case we are told that Nawab Wazeer Khan used to sit in the Bageechi of Wazeer Khan mosque. There were many graves of Mutavallis of the mosque on it, and we are told that they are now gone for mehfil of qawallis.
The one grave still standing is the mausoleum of Imam Ghulam Muhammed son of Imam Siddique. Although one source gives his date of death as 1237 AH, the year 1244 AH is given in more places. The date of death comes to 1828 AD. It can be presumed that the building on it was constructed at the same date, but the historian Kanaya Lall informs us that the building was constructed by a well-wisher of the Imam at the start of British rule. That would mean anything from 1846 AD to 1849 AD. But the building is not constructed just like that. It is perfect example of a miniature Mughal mausoleum. In fact, it has more affinity with the Mausoleum of Dr Allama Iqbal in the Hazuri Bagh area. An analysis of same is required.
It is not a haphazard construction. It has Euclid principles in its construction. Even the wooden door is based on older models of geometric carving. The balancing act of small pillars on the corners is based on the Taj Mahal itself. The dome is basically recalling the dome of the Nawan Kot mausoleum, presumed by many as Mausoleum of Zeb un nisa, which it is not.
Certainly, the Mimar knew all about Mughal construction. The naqashi on the inner side of the shades itself is very interesting, and recalls that of the mosque itself. But the grave is surrounded by exquisite naqashis on the four walls. The sarcophagus recalls those of older Mughal ones.
The dome of Imam Gamu is outstanding in its shape. To my knowledge only two mausoleums carry this shape. One is the mausoleum at Nawan Kot often confused as the Mausoleum of Princess Zeb un nisa (which it is not). The second is the mausoleum of Hazrat Mian Meer sahib. Both are outstanding developments of Euclidian principles from the double dome of the Shah Jahan era. It is a mixture of Bangla roof with double dome principles. The curve in it is unbelievable charming in all ways. Surely a creation of Lahore architects. The naqashi inside the dome itself placed in perfect harmony. The muqarnas naqashis well formed. All remind us of decorative works done in manuscripts of that period.
It is in total neglect as most things like these come to the end. But a few new inscriptions, both outside and inside show care. One inscription gives the name of many descendants long with their phone numbers. But these people attribute the mausoleum to Imam Farzand Ali, who was the Imam of Wazeer Khan Masjid, around 1900 AD. That is not so. The mausoleum was built by admirer of the Imam at the start of the British rule, that is 1846 AD to 1849 AD. Imam Allah Baksh was the Imam at that time. Who thought about it? One does not know, but it is naturally built out of love and reverence. Umar Din Naqash was the famous Naqash of the time, sitting in his hujra in the mosque itself. He was grandson of Mian Salah Mimar. All this looks like love of a family. Remember that Imam Gamu wrote verses in Punjabi and the greatest Punjabi poet at that time was Baba Hiyadatullah also of Mohalla Chabuk Sawaran. All things are interconnected, but we do know that Mian Salah Mimar was the only architect in Lahore at that time who knew the advanced principles of Mughal architecture. Ghulam Ali Mimar of Mausoleum of Maharani Gul Begum in Miani did not have the credentials to do this job.
Who was the architect at that time? Someone who was also associated with the Mosque as well as the Bageechi. Father and son of highest old talent lived nearby in the Mohalla Chabuk Sawaran. That is Muhammed Salah Mimar and his son Mian Raheem Baksh Mimar. The cousins had a hujra in the main mosque itself, practicing Naqashi from older times. The hujra of Umar Din Naqash is known to all. His son Baba Miran Baksh followed his profession.
It was here that the family of Mirza Izzad Baksh (last descendant of Wazeer khan), was seduced by Mirza Chajju Baig, who masterminded the theft of the Documents of Wazeer Khan, from the house of the Syed Hussain Ali (Bute Shah), the last official Mutavalli of Wazeer Khan Mosque. It was in connivance with Charles Aitchison, DC Lahore. The mosque passed on to Faheem un nisa and her husband Kareem Baksh, and endless litigation. But that is another story, for another time.
IN THIS HYBRID WAR THE VALUE OF TRUTH IS BEING DOWNGRADED; SOCIETY IN ITS QUEST OF ACCUMULATION THROUGH GREED HAS LOST, THE ESSENTIAL VALUES OF LIFE AS TOLD TO US BY ALL RELIGIONS.
We were taught many things at home. We were taught things at school too, but the home values out did them all. Our mothers told us the value of truth. Now social media teaches us to be street smart and not indulge ourselves in outdated norms of life. Are we better with them? Are we improving?
In fact, the society is crumbling into dust. We are told a tale of the Prophet (PBUH). A habitual sinner went to the Prophet and told him that he cannot leave all the sins he is donig but promised that he can leave one. The Prophet (PBUH) said that hold on to the truth, do not indulge yourself otherwise. The sinner promised to do that. The result with little time all the sins went away just be forming as habit of telling the truth. So truth is important essential of our life and the Quran starts our quest by assertig the value of truth. Hold on to the truth. It is our promise to our readers on this blog, that to the best of our knowledge, everything said here is the Truth and we are proud that we disseminate knowledge with truth.
What Quran says about the reward of Truth?
“‘This is the Day when the truthful will benefit from their truthfulness.’ For them are gardens [in Paradise] beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever, Allah being pleased with them, and they with Him. That is the great attainment,” (Al-Ma’idah: 119).
THE TRADITION OF MUSHAIRAS IN OUR CULTURE; POETIC GATHERING IN LAHORE IN YEAR 1044 A H. INAUGURATION OF MASJID WAZEER KHAN LAHORE.
The Wazir Khan mosque in Lahore was completed in 1044 AH. All this is on record. Also on record is that efforts were made from day one to make it a total cultural center. With the mosque a madrassa was generated and opportunities for literary gatherings. In an indirect way in a copy of Diwan Mahmood Lahori, the year of 1044 AH is given as a day of mushaira in Lahore. It seems that Mahmood Lahori who had come to the region in those times, presented a Masnavi of Mahmood and Ayaz, that is Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi and the Governor of Lahore Ayaz,. This collection is there in many copies of same. We have seen copies dated in 18th and 19th century. But the initial reference is about a poetic gathering in 1044 AH. With this Diwan of Mahmood Lahori is attached another Diwan of Ahmad Nadir. And just who is this, Ahmad Nadir? It is a diwan of Ustad Ahmad Lahori, who had the takhallus of Nadir, after Shah Jahan had decorated him with the title of Nadir ul Asar or Wonder of the Age. This title of Nadir is confirmed in other books, including the statement by his son Attaullah Rushdi. The writing of poetry was there with many members of the family, and the famous Diwan of Muhandis, that is Lutufullah Ahmad. The Diwan of Khairullah Muhandis was discovered too recently. Poetry was in the blood of the family, as expressed in their architectural creations.
An actual clue to these gatherings come from an inscription written by a poet Mirak Dost Muhammed in 1053 AH which is there on the wall facing the south bazaar of the mosque. The complete inscription could not be deciphered but the date and name are very clear. The name Mirak appears in the Tazhkiras of that time, but also finds reference in architects of that period.
And the inauguration of the mosque was not merely Mushairas. But philosophical and religious discussions as well. By Grace of Allah, we have a small religious discussion done in the same event, and the writer is one Muhammed Hamid, and the date is again 1044 A H. Picking up clues from past is a lot of hard work as well as sheer luck at moments. This Hamid may be Hamid Mimar, partner, friend, cousin or even brother of Ustad Ahmad Mimar. Obviously, speculations! But there is more to discover. It talks of a session of discussion over QATIL HAMZA or the murderer of Hazrat Hamza, and the people involved are all living legends. The name is of Qazi Sufi, Allama Rabbani, Mulla Saad ud din Ali Kashfi, and Imam Quli Bakhtawar. The session was chaired by Mulla Baqi. And here is another clue. Abdul Baqi was a leading calligrapher of those times and came from Iran and later went back to Iran. All these people were alive and inter related to each other through various means.
The meetings in Wazeer Khan Mosque continue to be mentioned in various times. Dara Shikoh’s Munshi Brahman mentions same. Mufti Ali uddin in his Ibrat Nama of Punjab mentions same too. A book can be written on those sessions alone. A rich cultural legacy set in motion, and stopped by the British. But that is another story!
THE HINDU CALLIGRAPHERS OF LAHORE; A FAMOUS “LAHORE MAL” FAMILY OF KATIBS
Lahore was always a culture center, where in all nationalities mixed with each other. It was here that Hindu students were trained by Muslim Masters in the art of miniatures. Many famous mussawars are on record. But we have Hindu students excelling in Muslim calligraphy, both in the Arabic and Persian script. These “Katibs” made a name for themselves. Our blog is on the subject and a link is provided for the same. Here we refer to the Mal family of calligraphers of Lahore.
We have seen and heard of many manuscripts written by Hindu calligraphers, on many subjects. Mostly we come across Inshas composed by Hindu Munshis and written as well by Hindu Calligraphers. But the subject does not end here. Astronomical tracts are there too but mostly we find them in Sanskrit script and language. But these calligraphers were at many subjects, including Ilm Najoom. The most interesting is religious subjects related to Islam. We find manuscripts like Masnavi Maulana Rum, written by them. I have myself seen a two-volume huge Masnavi written by Hindu calligraphers in Lahore in times of Aurangzeb. A Quran written by a Hindu calligrapher was offered to us once. Obviously, we come across many Qitas written by Hindu calligraphers. We have in our collection a Punj Sura written by a Hindu Calligrapher in times of Emperor Jahandar Shah, who was Emperor for one year only in 1039 AH or 1713 AD.
Tracing the Hindu caste “Mal” implies relation to Bengal and Jharkhand, and although they come in terms of “Shudra”, the profession associated with them mainly is that of wrestlers and snake charmers. But attaching themselves to Mughal Courts is revealing in their development. In any case the name Lahore Mal means that this calligrapher was associated with the city of Lahore, and follower of Emperor Jahandar Shah. Jahandar Shah was imprisoned by Farrukh Siyar, and spent prison with wife Lal Kunwar. That he wrote the Punj Sura in a most unique way possible. Large and few lines to make it easy to read and easy to write.
RAJA JAI SINGH’S INTEREST IN ASTRONOMY AND MUHAMMED SHAH; INVOLVEMENT OF KHAIRULLAH, ABID, AKBAR AND USHOOR BAIG IN ZIJ: ALL MUHANDISEN BELONGING TO FAMOUS MIMAR FAMILY OF LAHORE.
Maharani Jaipur Gayatri Devi was visiting Lahore and Chughtai Museum. We had invited her to inaugurate one of our shows but she was not allowed to come at that time. She was at odds with Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India. I told her about our ancestor Khairullah Muhandis, who was In charge of the many observatories of Raja Jai Singh for many years. He had already written his notes on Zij Muhammed Shahi. Our own manuscript of same includes his name, but also that of Abid Muhandis, Akbar Muhandis and Ushoor Baig. All dated around 1130 AH, the year of the Zij Muhammed Shahi itself.
What exactly is this ZIJ? Simply astronomical tables compiled with use of instruments at the various observatories of Raja Jai Singh, mainly the Jantar Mantar at Delhi. Although credit is given to Raja Jai Singh for all this, the confirmation obviously was required of the Emperor for same, and that is why the Zij is called after Emperor Muhammed Shah. Keep in mind that the Emperor is painted as a pleasure-loving nincompoop by the Western media, and reviled as such a depraved person cannot be responsible for giant steps in astronomical research. Khairullah Muhandis was in fact working for the Emperor himself. According to compiler STOREY he was the designer of these astronomical instruments, and InCharge of all these observatories for a long period of time. The amazing thing is that many of these astronomers were sent abroad to Europe in those times to harness themselves with latest knowledge on the subject. We have a treatise written by Khairullah at the port of Surat in those days, suggesting visit abroad. Various copies of his Sharh Zij Muhammed Shahi is available in various libraries. Various generations of Khairullah worked on Sharh Zij Muhammed Shahi, and the last one recorded is Mirza Gul Baig, and he writes his name as Mirza Gul Baig, son of Mirza Zainul Abedeen, son of Mirza Muhammed Ali, son of Khairullah Muhandis, son of Lutufullah Muhandis Lahori.
Lahore was the center of Astrolabe makers, famous all over the world. It was Khairullah’s genius which transferred precise small instruments into huge concrete structures. Research went miles ahead with such advances in observation. There was Mulla Chand with Emperor Akbar, Fareed Dehlavi with Shah Jahan, Khairullah with Muhammed Shah, and others. Emperor Humayoun died when he fell from the stairs in his observatory. And lest we forget there was an observatory tower in Lahore Fort too, which is no more, but record of same exists in various writings. The Mughals were very fond of astronomy, and had scholars to back their research. Well done!