MUHAMMED SHAREEF LAHORI SON OF KHAWAJAH ABDUL SAMAD
MUSSAWAR SHAHI EMPEROR AKBAR AND EMPEROR JAHANGEER
Khawajah Abdul Samad came from Kabul to Lahore at the invitation of Emperor Humayoun and headed the new Mughal studios for Emperor Akbar. An artist of exceptional caliber, he was dedicated to traditional aesthetics. He came along with his two sons. One was Muhammed Shareef, both a calligrapher as well as a painter. The other was named Behzad after Khawajah Abdul Samad love for his inspiration Kamaluddin Behzad. We have works of both the sons on record, but there are works in which father worked with his sons on their works as a kind of joint production and as an act of art education. We have already written on Behzad Lahori.
Some scholars believe that as an old man, Muhammed Shareef also wrote some calligraphic specimens for the Mosque of Nawab Wazeer Khan, although others believe that Muhammed Shareef is different. But no one can say that with certainty. A calligraphic item is in the archives of Chughtai Museum. We add a few pictorial images of his art.
Various Mohallas exist in the city of Lahore named after painters. M.A. Rahman Chughtai has listed many in his book on the same subject. One Mohalla is named Sheikh Basawan, and it exists to this day. He is called Sheikh because he embraced Islam in later life. History records same.
Nawab Wazeer Khan name is synonymous with Lahore. His history so diverse, without any research on him. Rise and fall unremembered. His name is taken as Aleem uddin but manuscripts of his life time, write of him as Ali uddin. We all know he came from Chinoit, and that he was a Hakeem. Not only a hakeem to royalty, but also an astrologer. Expert in horoscopes etc. Phenomenal rise is attached to his treatment of an ulcer on Nur Jahan’s breast, as mythology records same. But few know that he was a highly corrupt man, and one historian of his period records that without his commission, not a single business transaction could take place in Lahore. A real ancestor of our politicians. Once he was caught in an issue of moral turpitude and dismissed by Shah Jahan, as history records it. He died in Agra when he fell from his horse back. Buried probably in his garden in Agra but also possible that he was buried in his Garden’s baradari in Lahore, now the Punjab Public library. A local historian himself told me that he saw the grave of Wazeer Khan and his wife Zubeida in the basement of the baradari, and it exists to this day, hidden from public view. Many details can be found in my book LEGACY OF NAWAB WAZEER KHAN. But this not the point of this writing.
A manuscript dealer in Lahore had a Diwan in his possession, which was endorsed as the Diwan of Nawab Wazeer Khan. The takhallus was WAZEERI. He showed it to one scholar and the learned man found all the necessary details in it but attributed Nawab Wazeer Khan as having come from China. The word CHEEN was thought by him as China, he did not know that Chinoit itself is named after China, and was always referred as Little China. The other details were obvious. The Diwan has number of references related to Emperor, various Princes and Holy men. As well as rulers of the past, even Sultan Mahmood and Subuktageen. Qasidas on Emperor Akbar, Prince Saleem, Prince Murad and others. Shows the last days of Emperor Akbar. But lot of astrological references too. But it refers to him as a Hakeem too, as well as Nawab Wazeer Khan. Should be around 1000 AH. Normally copied version would be gold and naqashi illuminated but this is a plain copy on very thick paper. It can be studied on many points.
The manuscript has various seals and various dates. Front page has a reference to Nadir Shah, so it is apparent that it was stolen from India by Nadir Shah and his troops. It also has many references to the family of IWAZ KHAN, whose family tree is given as being descendant of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi. There are references to it being donated by Habib ullah as Waqf in the 18th century. Bad condition repaired in the 19th century and bound fresh. Elegant handwriting with excellent ink, but notations of additions and subtractions show that it is an autograph copy. Because the sequences are broken at places and the hand writing is not of any calligrapher but a person directly involved in same. Many dates on first page of 18th century but the end erased and a new date written along with the name of a person. The new date is 1186 AH and purchased by Afsand Yar from Yar Muhammed for Rs 4 or so. The scribe is given as Mir Abdur Rahman but this scribe does not look like the scribe of the manuscript. Mir Abdur Rahman was an exceptional calligrapher of his times but the writing on the erased place is not that of a famous calligrapher. Truth erased for some reason. The erasure is in different handwriting and can be clearly seen. The two erased lines have a portion missing too. One can clearly see ALI written at the start, which points to Ali uddin as his name. The mystery is always there in ancient texts.
The Diwan of Nawab Wazeer Khan with takhallus WAZEERI is an unique manuscript. No other copy is known in the world. It includes information which can shed new light on our history. We hope somebody will study it in detail.
The evening of 17th January, 1975, saw M.A. Rahman Chughtai breathed his last breath, in the arms of his wife Kishwar Iqbal Bano. A robust artist was reduced to multiple issues at the hands of an unkind world. The family was left in a total lurch, with most of his property having been grabbed by tenants, so called relatives and land grabbers. And then a financial vacuum surrounded the immediate family. Lobbies were activated to defuse Chughtai Art forever at the hands of iconic cultural consultants. No way out could be seen.
In the tradition of the last hand shake of Dr Allama Iqbal with M.A. Rahman Chughtai, the artist called me in the morning and held my hand and would not let it go. In just a few days I wrote a small pamphlet entitled YOU DO WHILE I LOOK THE OTHER WAY. I had seen my father cry in his last days, crying not for me or his family, but for the legacy of his art, which he realized was probably doomed forever. Of course we would not let him and his art falter at the hands of the philistines of the cruel wold. But how?
Condolences were received from Chief Minister Hanif Ramay and Governor Punjab Sadiq Hussain Qureshi, as well as Minister for Education Abdul Hafeez Pirzada, besides Prime Minister of Azad Kashmeer. The cultured Prime Minister had no time for any condolence as well as the stooge President of Pakistan. Except for Prime Minister Azad Kashmeer, all the others were manipulating the situation in their favour. Greed enveloped them completely.
Our resentment was obvious. A number of telegrams were sent all over the world to people who had access to Chughtai Art. The result was unprecedented. Condolences were received from many Heads of State, and that included President of West Germany Walter Scheel, Queen Elizabeth II of England, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of India, Vice President Nelson A Rockefeller of USA, US State Department Peter Constable, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau of Canada, as well as people like Secretary General of U.N.O, Dr Kurt Waldheim. This was very embarrassing for the people in power here. Those were the days of telegrams and letters, unlike the fast communication world of today. It took time but the results were effective. The Government in power was confused beyond limits.
Office was started from our home and we named it as CHUGHTAI ACADEMY OF ARTS. A small room was used as office and some people used to turn up. Some for condolence, some with bright ideas. Hardly anyone with words of encouragement. The museum site was occupied by 12 families inside the building and about 200 land grabbers outside the premises. The walls were broken and there was no gate. No electricity, not even water. It dismaying picture, when people would stone our coming, and bring out their dandas (huge sticks) and threaten us openly. The details are horrifying. Suffice that we held our first show on the open lawns in our premises under tents and our guests were numerous. Our Chief Guest was Irish scholar of Islamic Arts Dr James Dickie or Dr Yakub Zaki, converted to Islam. A number of Pakistanis were there, and that included Hafeez Jullundri, Dr Muhammed Baqir, Ghulam Ahmad Pervez, Justice S.A. Rahman, Ibadat Brelvi and many others. Hafeez Jullundri recited the National Anthem in his own words as well as a poem he had written on Chughtai artist, that is CHUGHTAI, ABDUR RAHMAN. The audience wept with him at the behaviour of the government in power. But we were on our way.
Dr Muhammed Baqir had the last word when he said to the audience (sizable indeed): You people will go away, do you realize what this young man will feel when he will be collecting all these chairs. Alone and abandoned. We remember a movie by Kirk Douglas that is “Lonely are the brave”. I was required to be brave to face the future. Forty four years later the bravery is still challenged every day.
MANY MUGHAL MINIATURES CARRY NAME OF BEHZAD LAHORI,
AS INSCRIPTIONS ON THE ART WORKS THEMSELVES BUT SADLY
DISMISSED BY WESTERN SCHOLARS BY COMPARISON WITH USTAD
KAMALUDDIN BEHZAD, WHO IS NATURALLY DIFFERENT PAINTER
Western scholarship lost the ability to look like locals and locals lost the ability to look at all. Some common sense about ourselves only we have and the world is forewarned about it. One relates to the artist Behzad. We are so familiar with the great Ustad Kamaluddin Behzad, that if we see the name anywhere else, we think of it as someone trying to forge a work in the name of the great Master. Not always so, indeed. The Iranians boasted of a most famous modern Behzad of their own. We also have a 16th century Behzad Lahori and there are few paintings we can calmly claim to be his own. For instance, the Jain Miniature is not by Ustad Sheikh Basawan but by Behzad Lahori, and many have mistaken this as a wrong attribution. Not so. There are miniatures of European women which are linked to the brush of Behzad Lahori. The Darab-nama in the British Museum is also one of them. We have tried to give you some visuals of same.
Who was Behzad Lahori? This takes us to the Mussavari khana in Lahore Fort and Khawaja Abdul Samad, one of the pioneers of Mughal Art in our region. Abdul Samad brought two young sons with him when he came to Lahore from Kabul. One was Khawajah Shareef and the other was Behzad Mussawar. Khawajah Shareef was a great scholar and poet having the takhallus ‘Farsi’ as his poetic name. Stray manuscripts carry his name. The same goes for Behzad Lahori, who was reared up and lived his life in Lahore, and later died here at a young age. He was first brought to our notice by one of the greatest Persian scholar of Pakistan, Hafiz Mahmud Khan Shairani. Professor Shairani pointed out that this painter was definitely of this region and was the son of Khawajah Abdul Samad.
Professor Shairani who had seen the Darab nama in the British Museum itself, spelled it in clear terms. This was later certified by the famous Western Scholar Dr Laurence Binyon, who said:
“A not very distinguished group in the sixteenth century Indian Darab Namah at the British Museum, London, bears the inscription, that the work of Behzad was corrected by Khawajah Abdul Samad.”
Other paintings of Behzad are found in the Changez nama in the Bankipur library, Patna. So the presence of Ustad Behzad Lahori is felt here and there. The latest inclusion is a miniature with inscriptions on it and the same refers to it as the work of Behzad. Again confusion prevailed in western scholarship and calls this old inscription as a mistake when it is not. It is the work of Behzad Lahori.
The work in our archives of European Musicians have the same line over the mountain in the background as this miniature and we can easily see it to be the work of Behzad Lahori. We have used it for mere review purposes to compare both works and come to proper conclusions. Include this name in references to foundation of Mughal Art.
A beautiful thesis by artist Ms Razzia Feroze exist on Behzad. A book on him by Dr Abdullah Chaghatai. And a write up by Abdur Rahman Chughtai, too. The Master covered by our people too.
WHEN ALLAH HAS NOT SHARED WITH US THE TIME OF OUR DEATH,
HOW CAN ALLAH SHARE THE TIME OF DEATH THE END OF ALL OF US
Surely hybrid war is getting out of its breeches. We are being stormed with pessimism about the end of the world. Surely Qiyamat is a reality but we still do not know its intricacies. It is a big changing event in our life. But it is not the end of everything. Allah’s promise is to restore us all as we were. And then we face the judgement, the laws of retribution to our actions in our lives. Simple. Nothing to worry about for the good people in the world. Those should worry who act evil in this world and are not even ashamed of their actions. We all know who should worry about same?
In fact Planet Earth has seen many qiyamats in the past. Many times life was almost destroyed. At the end of the Ice age about 12900 years back, an asteroid hit earth and led to phenomenal rise of melted water (30 feet) and known as Younger Dryas. It sunk many cities down the sea and created havoc. People made underground cities to escape it all. The resilience of people is phenomenal. Allah gives them the will to survive. Probably when life ends here, we will enter a new portal and face a newer kind of life.
Obsession with Qiyamat breeds hopelessness in people, when Qiyamat is an actual day of judgement. A moment to rejoice the outcome of our lives. This rattle has been going on for centuries. Even the Dead Sea Scrolls carry the same doomsday message, and that is 2000 years ago. Do good, stop mourning and stop people from mourning about nothing. Qiyamat is a message of a new life and it is something to rejoice about. And surely it may be millions of years away.
A SHORT REVIEW OF CLAUS-PETER HAASE ANALYSIS OF THE MUGHAL WORK
REPENTANCE OF MARY MAGDALENE AS NADIRA BANOS, AND THAT NOT SO
We all make mistakes. But we also need to correct them if told as thus. Without any prejudice to anyone, we came across a reference about Nadira Bano, and the mistake is so obvious, that we needed to correct it as a record for the future.
Dara Shikoh was son of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, in no way was his brother and it is not even remotely possible to say something like that. Normal mistake no issue at all. But things go further. The sadness in the picture and it is attributed to Nadira Bano. Obviously the Nadira Claus-Peter Haase is talking about is the Nadira Begum wife of Dara Shikoh. There was no sad history of this Nadira Begum till the very last, when war erupted between two brothers, Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb Alamgeer. Obviously her last days were ruined as she was on the run with her husband, died of food poisoning and her body brought back to Lahore from Sind. She lies buried in Lahore and we all love her. But she died before Dara Shikoh. Distress but no sad story at that time.
Claus-Peter Haase refers to an article by Milo C. Beach where another Mughal painting in Gulshan Album in Teheran is referred as that of Nadira Bano. Of course that is so. But the signature itself reveals the truth as it says that Nadira Bano daughter of Mir Taqi student of Aga Reza. See! Nadira Begum wife of Dara Shikoh, was daughter of Prince Pervaiz Mirza and Sahib Jamal. An actual cousin of Dara Shikoh. So putting two and two together not always work. Sometimes it leads to easy blunders and we need to correct them.
Claus-Peter Haase is an honourable person and I wrote this to him. No reply was received, so I am posting it as an act of reference. No prejudice to the scholar.
The greatest name in Islamic painting boils down to Kamal-ud-din Behzad, and everyone seems to have heard about him. Behzad must have produced abundance of paintings but very few survive to this day. Behzad also left many talented students. One such exceptional painter was Mulla Dost or Ustad Dost Muhammed Mussawar. Dost Muhammed worked for the Safavid court but later sought new patrons. In this respect he came to Kabul and from there proceeded to Delhi in search of Prince Humayoun. In this respect he landed at Lahore and met Prince Kamran who was in control of this city. A school of book production and painting was already active here and we see the same working in Kamran’s Baradari, which still exist to this day.
A manuscript created at that time, written by Abdullah Sherazi is in some private hands. It shows what was happening here. Even in midst of chaos, emphasis on art was not forsaken. Realizing the tussle between the two brothers, Dost Muhammed went back to Kabul and served Humayoun there for many years as is proven by his seal which says the same. But his presence in Lahore was there.
There was a manuscript of Behzadian School with antique dealer Bahadur Shah of Mochi Gate Lahore. And it was big news at that time. It finally fell into the hands of Jalaluddin Publishers of Kashmeeri Gate, Lahore. There were five miniatures in it and M.A. Rahman Chughtai had seen it. Its final destination or present location is no known but it was attributed to Dost Muhammed Mussawar and probably done in Lahore. History is full of riddles that cannot be solved easily.
A farman of Mirza Kamran explains the situation well. It says:
Scholars have expressed their opinion on this like that:
“But very soon, Humayun found himself engaged in military campaigns culminating in his loss of Hindustan in 1539-40. On his way to Humayun’s court, Dust Muhammad would doubtlessly have alighted in Lahore, where Kamran was based at the time (a fact, again, apparently overlooked by previous scholars). Once there, the master was probably advised not to proceed further and consequently joined the prince’s retinue. Humayun also eventually betook himself to Lahore, but Kamran did not hand over the city to him nor allow him to proceed in state to Kabul, forcing him to seek asylum with Tahmasp. Although partly conjectural, this scenario would account for Dust Muhammad’s departure and his choice of Kamran as a patron better than a purported flight to Kabul (where Kamran, incidentally, only moved his headquarters after Humayun’s flight from Hindustan in 1540.”
Mirza Kamran in Lahore at that time. Dost Muhammed calls here. Sees the squabble going in between the two brothers and decides not to prolong his stay here and proceed back to Kabul. A seal testifies that Dost Muhammed got into the service of Prince Humayoun. Art flourished even in the worst of times.
The primitive human beings did not have the guidance of Allah and were not able to develop a code of morality and ethics. But even they realized that fighting was not the key to success. A slow movement of social integration started with the development of a family system. The family had important ingredients of three generations. Grand parents, parents and children. And all three generations had the ability to contribute in making their structure strong within and strong without. Together they could survive and separate they would succumb to others. The Aesop’s fable of the ten sticks handed over to his ten sons by the dying man is an ever lasting example of unity. Bound together the sticks were not breakable, but separated they were easy to break.
The demonic desire to break the family is a ruse of lobbies to undo our country. The confusion and mess of homo sexuality, the gender battle of dominance instead of equality, the innuendoes of incest, can be fought by holding strong to the rope of Allah’s commands. Here we show eleven beautiful images of family life as portrayed by M.A. Rahman Chughtai, National Painter of Pakistan. Enjoy and be proud of Pakistan. A family is forever!
AN ARISTOCRATIC DISDAIN FOR THE PLEASURES OF COMMON MAN
THE ANIMOSITY TOWARDS BASANT IS ACTUALLY CLEARLY RAW DEAL
All praise for our Minister of Culture who looked into the matter of Basant which engulfed Lahore and their disdain for those who sabotaged their one easy way of pleasure. People flew kites, they were not involved in theories. Their happiness knew no bound, and a Lahori festival became internationalized. It told the world that Muslims were not glum all the time but knew the value of happiness. A festival which was bringing a message to the world of our PEACE was sabotaged, by RAW and there is no doubt about it.
So many newspapers have journalists who are on foreign payrolls. They would write against their own mother if you paid them to do so. And Pakistan is their mother. Anything which gives relief to masses is resented by foreign lobbies. Immediately you see news of children being killed by stray twine. No one researches if it even actually happened or not, or that they are just repeating old news all the time. Paying people on the streets to give verdicts which they can relay is the work of many moronic people, getting fat on finances provided by foreign lobbies. I think it is time that our intelligence lobbies investigate who is doing what to defame us.
I am a kite flyer. My father was a kite flyer. My grandfather was a kite flyer as well as his father. Further back we do not know. Read my three previous blogs on Basant and find out things you never knew. Simple kites and simple MANJAS in round spheres of perfection called PINAS. String with eggs of eagles to smooth same so that no damage was done to hands. And then where did these new kind of strings came from? Of course India. Ask anybody and they will tell you about Indian string and this dangerous chemical string concept which has no basis in kite flying in Lahore. Introduced for deadly reasons to sabotage kite flying in Lahore. Even some of the mishaps were staged according to local reports. The journalists are paid not to speak and their silence means money.
CONGRATULATIONS TO OUR MINISTER OF CULTURE! Well done,Sir.
CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN AS QUAID-E-AZAM WANTED IT
BASED ON FRENCH CONSTITUTION AND MUHAMMED ASAD
The narratives started in the life time of Quaid-e-Azam and are there to this day, in full fledged attempt to undo the Islamic yearning of our great leader. Begum Shahnawaz reports that Quaid-e-Azam was actually working on a constitution for the country and papers laid by his bed were there. The basis to be modeled was on the French Constitution. Not only was his life cut short, but those papers were stolen by somebody. Probably a foreign lobby who must have them to his day. Certainly the Quaid along with his comrades had rejected Parliamentary Democracy in totality. Not only that he had opened a department of Islamic reconstruction and had put Muhammed Asad on that important job, rejecting all Maulvis as well as all Secular minded narratives. Not only that he had put G.A. Pervez as his special adviser in his cabinet on Islamic affairs.
All this was based on the ideas of Dr Allama Iqbal to go back to pristine Islam and shed all the unnecessary baggage picked up through the centuries. And keep room for ijtehad in Islam. The majority can change rules though a democratic process. Of course this was hated by foreign lobbies who wanted to see Pakistan collapse. The brilliant article on Constitution making we are adding as a download in our blog. Download it and read it. You owe Pakistan that much. If lakhs lost their life, we can put the zest back in Pakistan and make it a socialistic republic forever. Erase the growing gap between the Rich and the Poor. Bring happiness to our country for all. Pakistan the fist step towards a world revolution. Pakistan Forever!