THE PROVERBIAL ICON OF LAHORE M.A. RAHMAN CHUGHTAI,
MISSED MENTIONS ARE DELIBERATE OR MERE IGNORANCE
Ms Tania Qureshi is an esteemed lady, writing about Lahore and fresh to this complicated field. We have always found her responsive to new information. Some time back she wrote an article on Kocha Chabuk Sawaran Lahore and mentioned many residents there. But missed mentioning the most famous resident of that Kocha, that is artist Khan Bahadur M.A. Rahman Chughtai. It was very surprising for us. But a day or two back, a new article on important people of Lahore and again name of Chughtai is not there. Obviously if we write a letter to the editor today, editorial people have no room for putting such facts down. I personally think Ms Qureshi is well informed and that there is some bigoted editorial assistant who is allergic to Chughtai artist.
M.A. Rahman Chughtai is no ordinary citizen of Lahore. It is a Lahori family from more than 400 years. Chughtai was born in in Lahore on 21st September, 1897, and died in Lahore on 17th January, 1975, and lived his entire life in this city. He put Lahore on the Art map of the world again. This is Chughtai’s Lahore, who put the word CHUGHTAI ART in the Urdu Encyclopaedia. We can say a thousand things, but one is enough. This is injustice to the memory of an icon of Pakistan and also an icon of the Art world. We are there to correct wrong.
THE NEW BREED OF CULTURAL TERRORISM
REVITALIZE DEAD CULTURE NOT LIVING ONE
THE ENIGMA OF THE PAKISTANI MORON
In 1947 the name of M.A. Rahman Chughtai was the most respectable name in the Art in the Indian region. All recognized it. India did not want to let Chughtai go and tried their best to shift him to India. The artist was Iqballian and knew the PAKISTAN IDEA well, having been with Dr Allama Iqbal for nearly twenty years. But that is a different story. The choice of Pakistan was as natural to Chughtai as anything else.
M.A. Rahman Chughtai was speaking to an audience at Alhamra and whereas many were listening to him, there were others who were sent to needle him. A stupid paid moronic jerk got up and claimed that his Art was not Pakistani Art but Indian Art. He asked Chughtai simply WHAT WAS THE NAME GIVEN TO YOUR ART BEFORE PARTITION? Not to be needled by such morons, Chughtai reply was simple, CHUGHTAI ART. The man who traced his descent from artists and architects of Central Asia, Herat and Turkey, to make and align him with Hindu Art was a ridiculous question. All done with purpose.
Governor General Ghulam Muhammed joined the frey of saboteurs by inaugurating the exhibition of M.A. Rahman Chughtai at Karachi in 1952 and then advising the artist to SHUN THE PAST AND COME INTO THE FUTURE. He was red faced when he saw the subjects of the paintings. Most modern subjects of Pakistani girls, hostels and college compounds. He should have drowned himself there and then in a cup of water, as traditions demand. Why were such things being said? For a want of better word, we can simply say it was CULTURAL TERRORISM to deviate Pakistan away from the Idea of its inception.
Could any power on Earth have deviated Chughtai from his mission of National Identity! Of course not. But morons keep on trying, for they are paid to do so, and they know their next bottle of alcohol would come from such tainted money. And then these rats would pretend to roar like lions.
In our 43 years of struggle we too faced such imbeciles. A famous poetic icon suggested to the Chief Minister Punjab, to cognize that we were not in a strong position and to FINISH US BEFORE WE GAINED ANY STRENGTH. The man went to the grave with his mission to undo Chughtai unrealized and his family keeps his mission alive. But they too realize by now. It was not done and it cannot be done. For we were standing not on a tempest torn sea, but granite blocks of National Identity based on Islamic values. My mother used to recite her favourite verse to me:
AAY THAY JO SANG RAH BAN KAR,
SUB UR GAYE BARG KA BAN KAR.
She always told me be strong, no power on earth can topple you in your tracks. I never faltered. When doubt tried to touch me, the spirit of my mother regained my composure. With such prayers with me, who could stop me? And why? We are in the best interest of Pakistan and we subscribe to an Islamic Pakistan based on Quranic values. Pakistan Forever!
THE BEAT OF CURRENCY WARS BEING FELT IN LAHORE
OBVIOUSLY OUR ART AND CULTURE WILL SUFFER MOST
The company Daewoo was in full swing in Lahore some years back. The owner’s son had died in a car crash in Korea and his mother vowed to keep his memory alive by building a museum in his name. In that respect a Director of Daewoo Korea called on me and we had a straight forward discussion. We talked of his country and ours. He told me that we were very lucky and they were not. In times of war they had no access to food and that is why they lost the war. He told me you have all kind of eating things with you. You can survive any catastrophe. I was amazed at his analysis. Many years back I was attending a course on Economic and the Professor Charles Ratcliffe simply said that they have put a value on human life, and that they do dump wheat in the sea to stabilize market prices and they cannot afford to give this as gift to under privileaged countries as in starving Africa. The result is obvious.
The Quran tells us that Allah will not allow any other system to prevail for long and capitalism is a rebellion against Allah. It was obvious that Communism collapsed and as it was not in accordance with Divine principles. And that the turn of Capitalism would come. We knew it all along and now the internet and rumours mongering is all full of the collapse of intentional monetary system. Should it scare us here in Lahore? An etching by M.A. Rahman Chughtai, namely Dead Shrines tells us the story of wealth.
There are good hard working people all over the world. And that is not true for any single place. Humans know the value of toil. Whether it is Americans, Russian, Chinese or anybody else. Value of hard work is recognized. See the etching by M.A. Rahman Chughtai, namely Kashmeeri Woodcutter. It is hard work personified with dignity of the woodcutter. Nothing like caste, colour, creed or gender comes here. But there are those like King Midas (a great number of our politicians and anchors) with greed running through their DNA and blood. People who like to amass wealth with even realizing that it does nothing for them beyond a certain amount. These people have a lot to worry now.
Currency wars are coming to our country. It is not the Midas who will survive. It will be the hard workers who will continue to work with resilience to carve out a new and peaceful tomorrow.
A VIDEO ON THE MAUSOLEUM OF SUFI SAINT IN LAHORE FORT
FOR THOSE WHO HAD NO ACCESS TO SAME IN RECENT TIMES
Prince Dara Shikoh son of Shah Jahan claims that Hazrat Ali Hujweri is buried in the Lahore Fort. He saysthat he had a beautiful white chaste marble sarcophagus made on it. His munshi Chandar Bhan Brahman goes further and claims that the mausoleum was built all new.
Chandar Bhan Brahman, Munshi of Prince Dara Shikoh visited Lahore on leave of absence from the Emperor and mentioned various things. Originally from Lahore himself, he even had his own house here. The first thing he did here was to visit the Mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri for spiritual blessings. And about the Mausoleum complex of Hazrat Ali Hujwiri in Lahore, he says:
“Even though there are yearly and monthly impromptu performances throughout the city’s precincts, especially at the tombs and shrines of the giants along the path of esoteric Truth (buzurgan i rah i haqiqat), the Thursday gatherings at the blessed tomb of that knower of mystical stages, Pir Ali Hujwiri, creates an especially remarkable commotion. Darwishes and other free spirits, literati, poets, and all manner of people gather there to observe the spectacle of Divine Creation.”
No mention of general public, but Chandar Bhan Brahman goes on to say another remarkable thing. He reports that one Ishwar Dass, the Minister of Architecture “had demonstrated his great competence and excellent taste with respect to every heavenly building”. An Hindu administrator for upkeep of every Mughal monument in Lahore, and as a consequence not only the upkeep but the making of these complexes with excellent taste, including the Tomb complex of Pir Ali Hujwiri. In other words Prince Dara Shikoh had Ishwar Dass make the entire Tomb complex of Pir Ali Hujwiri and overhauled it, and as Dara Shikoh himself says, that he gave it a chaste white marble sarcophagus for same. In other words we can think of that white marble sarcophagus in line of tombs like Emperor Jahangeer as well as that of Tomb of Sahib Jamal (Anarkali). But for a Prince to change a sarcophagus only, was obviously not enough. Surely he had the building of the Mazar made again, or even relocated at some place.
Unfortunately the place for all this is not specified in any way. If a Mughal Tomb complex was designed in the 17th century, where is it now? Where is the grave stone of same? Disappeared in thin air. Although according to Mufti Ghulam Sarwar 2000 buildings in Lahore disappeared under the Sikh rule here, and a number of Mazars are recorded as having suffered the same. But Ranjit Singh was enamoured with Pir Ali Hujwiri. In fact three visits (1833, 1837, 1838) are on record, and he presented Rs 125 as ardas for the beggars and friars of the complex, along with amounts for Chajju Bhagat complex, and Mastan Shah. He is recorded as having prostrated at the grave at one time. One of his wife had even repaired the complex on her own.
But things get more interesting in the next year 1839. There was a need to rebuild the Gates and for added protection trenches outside the gates were to be made. A need was felt to clear the Bhatti Gate area. Outside Bhatti Gate was the area and mohalla of another famous Sufi of Lahore, that is Syed Shah Sharaf, on which was the mausoleum and mosque of that saint too. The mohalla was not that populated in Sikh times, and it was decided to clear the Bhatti Gate area, so both the mausoleum and Mosque of Syed Shah Sharaf were demolished under the orders of Ranjit Singh himself. Faqeer Aziz uddin was given the task of taking the body out of the learned Syed and then reburying it in the Hata of Haji Muhammed Saeed in Dulla Wari area, where the body is still there under a small construction.
In same year (after death of Ranjit Singh) orders were given by Kharrack Singh to vacate all areas within half a mile distance from the Gates and Wall of Lahore (one does not know how many came under the demolition drive, probably many), and as a result orders were also given to demolish the mausoleum and mosque of Shah Muhammed Ghaus Qadri outside Delhi Gate Lahore. An European Delaurax dismantled the mosque and started with the mausoleum. There was a huge hue and cry in the city (strange for Shah Ghaus and not for others), and it is reputed that Kharrack Singh died that very night. And people believed that it was the spiritual might of Muhammed Ghaus which did the same. But all this gives us no view about the Hujwiri quarters in Lahore. The same is also very near Bhatti Gate, and it is probable that this too was cleared. What happened?
Graves relocation is normal in history. It happened with Shah Bilawal of Shah Jahan’s time, too. When the present site of Pir Ali Hujwiri was made recently (only a few years back), a number of graves of holy men were dismantled and relocated elsewhere, and the whole process was done in the night. A number of graves within the site were just cleared and the tombstones sold in the market. How sad that how ruthless can administrators become? No compassion anywhere. But so many other mazars were cleared during the night, ruthlessly. Nothing seems to have changed. Ruthlessness has no religion.
The mystery deepens. Dara Shikoh mentions the grave of Pir Ali Hujwiri in the Lahore Fort. Chandar Bhan Brahman mentions a Tomb complex somewhere. A proper mausoleum made about 1861 (and remade over time) exists to this day. What are the secrets of Pir Ali Hujwiri? Only time will tell or it will never be found. No one really knows! I have seen manuscripts written at the tomb of Pir Ali Hujwiri, and two of them are in our library, one 17th century, and the other 18th century, but again no area is given in the colophon. One of them is by the Mujawir of the complex. Till something comes up, nothing definitely can be said by anyone. Speculation cannot be enough.
But that is a theory only. Research may bring more facts. But complexity remains. Obviously such mischief is left out of the pages of history.
WESTERN EXPERTS LACK EVEN BASIC KNOWLEDGE ABOUT CHUGHTAI ARTIST COUPLED WITH ARROGANCE NOT TO CONSULT THE SOURCE OF THE ARTIST
We come across references in Western sources including so called auction circles PROVENANCE statements , and what can we say? An auction coming up in September narrates the presence of M.A. Rahman Chughtai in San Francisco. One can die laughing but we are not amused. M.A Rahman Chughtai visited Europe by ship in 1931 and 1938 and that is on record. Except for a couple of trips to India as well as one to Hyderabad Deccan, and two trips to East Pakistan, he went nowhere else. Around 1951 he was given a grant to lecture at Columbia University in USA but he never accepted that offer. So factually he never went back to Europe or that he ever visited USA. The reference of a meeting to someone with the artist in San Francisco is TOTALLY WRONG. So the provenance is not known or perhaps contrived by someone. We do not know! Anyway check the reference yourself and to read about his foreign trips read and down load EAST MT WEST from our blog and check this direct:
PROVENANCE Property from the collection of a friend of the artist, who met Chughtai at a reception in San Francisco and fostered a friendship with him through exchanges of art books for his paintings Bequeathed to a Canadian private collector by the above Christie’s New York, 21 September 2005, lot 256 Acquired from the above by the present owner
THE PHENOMENA OF HORSES IN INDO-PAKISTANI REGION
AND HARDLY USED BY HINDUS AND JAINS IN WAR AND LIFE:
IMAGERY OF ELEPHANTS AS HINDU GODS AND IN BATTLES
A study of Elephants and horses in this region is like a study of the two nation theory. The history of horses in this region is an uncharted territory. Some people have written about ancient horses. The Hindu epic Mahbharata mentions horses but as sacrificial animals. And relate them to Bhadeswar, historically known as Bhadvarti. History speaks of a shipwrecked Ismaeli ship in the coast of Rann of Kutch and the survival of seven thoroughbred horses. From these horses sprung the lineage of all thorough bred horses in the region. This reference is more than a 1100 years old. It is strange that in a Surya temple the figure is repeated as Surya the Sun rides a chariot driven by seven horses. That is:
“The iconography of Surya in Hinduism varies with its texts. He is typically shown as a resplendent standing person holding lotus flower in both his hands, riding a chariot pulled by one or more horses typically seven. The seven horses are named after the seven meters of Sanskrit prosody: Gayatri, Brihati, Ushnih, Jagati, Trishtubha, Anushtubha and Pankti.”
Seven a magic word. Strange that the ship wrecked horses were also seven.
The legend was so true that even courtier Abu Fazl in times of Emperor Akbar tells us about the same. And there is no doubt that Ismaelis loved horses, and they happily co-existed with Hindus and Jains as seen in the ruined city of Bhadeswar itself, where mosques and temples exist side by side.
But a study of major battles in the region show that Hindus preferred fighting on elephants and the Muslims loved to fight on horse backs. The fight of Muhammed bin Qasim and Raja Dahir was between elephants and horses. Research work is all possible on this aspect of history. Even the Central Asian Mongols invaded this region on back of horses. And this applies to most of the entrance of fighters to the region, including Ghaznavids, Tughlaqs, Lodhis, Mughals and Durranis. Strange that we hear of horses being used as sacrificing animals in Bhadeswar etc, and the strange part is that sculptures exist of Hindu rajas having sex with horses and these are there is famous temples. That is around 1250 AD, or about 800 years ago. Some images are included but cut to preserve sanctity of our writing. Check original on link:
The foreigners preferred horses for agility and speed of traveling. The Hindus preferred elephants for their might and relative safety for ground fighting. It is also related to class consciousness. On horseback all fighters fought on egalitarian footing, while on elephants the riders were in fact sitting on an upper strata of things. Class consciousness in reality! No comradeship there. In any case horse history is worthy of extensive research.
LEGENDARY HASSAN NIZAMI AND MAH RANA IN LAHORE 1926
100,000 LAHORIS RECEIVED THEM AT RAILWAY STATION LAHORE
An earth shaking incident in Lahore in 1926 and we find it absent from historical narratives, and no one goes back in memory lane to remember them. Khawaja Hassan Nizami the legendary scholar of Delhi with his output of more than 200 books plus numerous journals, and his involvement with ruler of IMOOD GUJRAT Mah Rana Nahr Singh alias Naserullah Khan. Mah Rana proudly declared that there was no coercion in their conversion to Islam and they did it out of their free will. In a famous address at NAPPA, 7500 Rajputs declared Islam as their faith and swore allegiance to the Mah Rana.
A train journey took them to various cities in 1926 and their presence in Lahore was outstanding. On 16th April, 1926, late at night (train one hour late), one lakh citizens of Lahore received them at the railway station and they were the guests of the town. A jaloos took them into town though Mochi darwaza to Delhi Darwaza. Received by Inayat Shah. Various meetings took place. Sir Muhammed Shafi welcomed them. Anjuman Himayat Islam arranged a reception. Mah Rana went to see Dr Sir Allama Iqbal at his residence (requested people to read Shikwa and Jawab Shikwa), helped poor people on the street and even gave shoulder to the funeral of a Muslim passing by his car entourage. People loved and welcomed him with open arms.
The two nation theory was in full play. Whereas Muslims and Muslim Press was welcoming the Mah Rana, the Hindu Press chose to spite him fully. Arya Samaj was on the fore front of same as well as Lala Lajpat Rai who opposed the guest in filthy terms, by accusing Khawaja Hassan Nizami of duplicity and being an agent of the British. Debates started in Muslim and Hindu press and Hassan Nizami replied to each of them in his scholarly way. Even cartoons were made of the events in the newspapers, ridiculing the role of Hassan Nizami as a stinging bee.
In the step towards Pakistan we cannot discount the conversion of Mah Rana Nahr Singh as Naserullah Khan and his loyal band of Rajput followers. A Rajput haven of Imood embraced Islam. The case for Pakistan was getting stronger with each day.
MEN, WOMEN, TRANSGENDERS: ALL ARE EQUAL IN EYES OF ALLAH
BUT ALL ARE NOT SAME, DIFFERENT IN PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TERMS
EXCELLING OVER OTHERS AT POINTS AND LOWERING AT OTHER POINTS
The Mantra of Women’s emancipation comes from societies which have enslaved women from centuries. To compensate for their ages old sin against women, they preach revolt in society, which is another way of demonizing human relations. In the Wisdom of Allah all are equal in front of Allah. Without going into details at this moment, Allah preaches emancipation of entire humankind. Islam was the first to recognize the importance of freedom for both men and women. Cultures interpreted the Quranic injunction in certain ways but could not evolve the perfect harmony envisaged in Divine laws.
The physical differences between men and women are obvious. Testosterone and progesterone plays a role in aggressive men and compliant women. But there are internal differences too, and science itself recognizes them. For societies which even today make women twist and turn on poles, with the mockery of hooting barbarians, preaching freedom seems a joke of it all. Horrifying surveys are there all the time. One third of women in Japan face sexual harassment., Similarly a large percentage of girls are molested in British Schools. Even Church padres have been found in such child indulgence. Where is the respect ordained for women, which was always there in Islamic injunctions? In Pakistan fuss is made about tribal societies and their treatment of women, and not realizing that those practices predate Islam and are not leftovers of Islam in any way. Obviously all societies must respect citizens of any kind, and making media hype in bashing Islam is no way the answer to things.
Paradise lies under the feet of women, says Allah. Motherhood the supreme system of being. In our culture our elders forced us to respect women, to love children, to be fair to others. Those were values of civilization. Our greatest example was Hazrat Khadija herself. A business women who hired our Prophet and impressed with his credentials, proposed marriage to him. That is how free our women were in the past. Modesty part of their lives. Men and women have different erogenous zones. The zones need to be covered and not overtly displayed for everyone. If revealing ones body is being modern, then it is purely shameless in design. Provoking people in an unnecessary way on the streets is not conducive to cohesion in society.
Allah has given the capacity for men to be like women and women to be like men, when required in the advent of time. But there are professions which suit men, and professions which suit women., There is no inferiority or superiority here. It is simply common sense., We see women filling petrol at petrol stations, but how many women we see as car mechanics, with grime, oil and dust on their hands. Would women allow oil grime to be under their nails most of the time? Is denting a car a woman’s profession! How many women want to be kick boxers, or be dropped in parachutes in combat zones? Yes women can do all those things too, but that does not suit the ARCHETYPE of Jung’s psychology of self. And let us say that we make men women and women men, what do we solve? Is engendering such a state conducive to social growth!
Any analysis of genetic traits makes us realize the subtle differences between both sexes. Human spermatozoa is produced in male testicles all the time from puberty to even a very old age in literally millions in number. A female is born with a fixed number of ovaries and get released every month in the cyclical menstruation periods. Very very different but very equal in terms of Allah’s blessings on both sexes. Fertility period varies due to Divine wisdom. The male Y remains the same even beyond 500 generations, the woman’s mitochondrial dna goes ages back, with only six genomes in history. Different but objective same. United male and female as one, the Ashraf ul Maklooq in living beings.
The gaffe lies in our indoctrination to become MODERN and that is a Western hype thrusted on us each moment in our life. The West broke the family to foster its own programmes. Making a house wife a dirty word and a faithful wife unbelievable archaic. No one has right to dominate any one else, freedom is a sacred word in relations. We all need emancipation from Western Modernism. Perfection lies in development of personality, not responding to silly terms. Islamic way of life is emancipation itself, and is neither religious, nor secular. In fact Islam is a challenge to both outmoded terms in life.
A SAD END TO A GREAT DREAM OF A MUSEUM
FYZEE RAHAMIN AND HIS GALLERY IN KARACHI
Samuel Fyzee Rahamin mixed background is an enigma. A Jew who believed in the superiority of women and was proud of being same. Hen pecked is a small word for him. Achieving great success in England, he boasted of having taught even Queen Mary at college. Even today Tate Gallery has a website on his works. So much success, and he along with his darling intellectual wife Atiya Begum came to Pakistan, being patronized by Quaid e Azam himself.
Then something strange happened. A gallery was built by them in Karachi and was working, when the erstwhile bureaucrat N.M. Khan got wind of something wrong there, and had it demolished. It was a big shock to the couple, but it was a big shock to the art world here too. WHY? There were rumours of something wrong going on there but probably unfounded and never proven and never brought to knowledge of people. In any case proving links with intelligence is literally impossible in Pakistan. Samuel died reputedly as a Muslim having embraced Islam. And loyal Atiya pursued the case with diligence and won the same, but decided never to move back to the place. A grand gallery was conceived again and built on their land but to this day it is not complete and NO ONE HAD THE FINANCIAL COURAGE to complete it. Probably a lot of works got destroyed or stolen, but some are still there. But the output of the artist was not much. We have in our archives some books illustrated by him and most art publications in Pakistan carries a Mughal subject painting done by him.
M.A. Rahman Chughtai always complained of lack of ART CRITICS in Pakistan who literally had no sensibility for art. If Dr Muhammed Din Taseer had lived, he was the exceptional art critic produced under guidance, companionship and love of Chughtai himself. Problem is as a nation we are not sensitive to art but as art critics we are bordering on stupidity. Art requires observation and our critics do not even have time to look at art. Outside world people view art for hours, days, months, and even in different light and come to startling conclusions about artists. There is always hidden symbolism in work of great Masters and need thorough study to understand them. I saw the analytical skill of critic American scholar Stuart Cary Welch and was amazed at how he looked at things. British scholar Basil Gray was like that too. I saw both working at close quarters. The dramas written by Samuel Fyzee Rahamin got host of critics in London. Although John Galsworthy could only appreciate that he was selected to receive a copy of his drama. The art works of Fyzee Rahamin has not discovered any art critic yet. A look a his work MODERN PANHARI highlights his desire to link various religious movements. But it is done in a somewhat child like manner. Commission of murals at Raj Bhavan went to Fyzee Rahamin. The works at Viceroys House (Raj Bhavan) in Delhi perhaps are there, as well as Parliament house, but many of them were whitewashed by India. In cultural destruction many things common in India and Pakistan.No complaints at all!
THE INEVITABLE CURSE OF THIS SO CALLED DEMOCRACY
DIVIDING THE NATION INTO UNCONTROLLABLE GROUPS
Pakistan was born in the name of Islam and considered as ONE UNIT. The amazing part is that the two wings were initially called WEST PUNJAB and EAST BENGAL. Then gradually it was called WEST PAKISTAN and EAST PAKISTAN. Gradually the iconic leaders were eliminated, even assassinated. The slickness of foreign lobbies in engendering language riots and then making an attempt to foster provincialism in the country. All three Martial Laws brought stability to the country and all attempts at Democracy brought ruins. Why did Military rule failed in the end? Because those so called Military dictators were democrats at heart and mingled with politicians who undid all their patriotic efforts. Standing on the edge of eternity, few people can look st the reality of things. Self interest creeps in and national feeling lacks development.
The majority of the population is Muslim and the foreign lobbies find it difficult to create rifts in the country on that issue. Making the fall guy religion all the time. Media Mullahs are also at behest and command of foreign lobbies. Most people have no idea what even the Quran says, but the undiluted love for their Prophet (PBUH) overcomes all other things. An iconic leader is required and eventually Pakistan will find one out of necessity. But it may be too late by then. A scenario is being generated that due to ECONOMIC BANKRUPTCY we may trade our nuclear assets for economic relief. AND THEN OBLITERATION AT THE HANDS OF THE ENEMY. The poop of this joy will never come to our enemies. If Pakistan is driven into a corner, Pakistan will react, and when the hibernating Muslim wakes up, it is death for the enemy. Obviously this is well known to the enemies.
Even our Prophet (PBUH) could not engender peace without war. When perceptions are choked with hatred, the enemy knows no compassion. Nothing can stop a person, when the blood becomes sacred. There is nothing more sacred than defending your home land and your Ideology.