COLLECTING LOST CREDENTIALS AND TESTIMONIALS; MIAN RAHEEM BAKSH MIMAR IN HISTORY OF LAHORE.
Mian Raheem Baksh Mimar was grandfather of artist M.A. Rahman Chughtai. There are plans to write a detailed account of him. We came across a printed copy of testimonials of a society made in 1890 in Lahore, which printed testimonials of various craftsmen of Lahore. The printing was done by the Army Press in Lahore. Mian Raheem Baksh has a printed set of certificates issued by various British administrators in Lahore. Some of the certificates certify his attachment with the Railway Station Lahore under actual work, the first Freemason Hall, and even with the Punjab Regiment of that era. Worthy of study.
There are other records available related to the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, actual inscriptions to Katra Abdul Ghafoor, construction papers of Haveli Raja Dina Nath (now in Record Office), and many yet to be discovered with research. Even a lane in Old Lahore named after him. So enjoy the new discovery!
TWO NATION THEORY; IDEAS, NOT BLOOD MAKE REAL RELATIONS; STORY OF DARA SHIKOH AND AURANGZEB ALAMGEER
Take the two names and you will find immediately that people have taken sides. One group will eulogize Dara Shikoh and curse Aurangzeb Alamgeer as a bigot. The other group will curse Dara Shikoh and praise Aurangzeb Alamgeer. And the interesting part is that conclusions of both are not based in any way on the reality but literal media hype generated by vested interests. The father was Emperor Shah Jahan, the mother Arjumand Bano Mumtaz Mahal, and their literally thirteen children. The fourteenth one took the life of the mother. Yes, Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb Alamgeer are real brothers, with many common interests. Both are expert calligraphers, and yes, both feel that there is more to life than merely being Princes of the Mughal household. Spiritual matters affect both of them. Yes, strangely both calligraphed the Quran, and copies of the Qurans written by them are known to exist. Both are less or more obsessive readers of literature and both composed poetry and books. And both are devout husbands. Yes there are more wives, even mashooqs, but each is attached to one wife in particular. Dara Shikoh to wife Nadira Bano and Aurangzeb Alamgeer to wife Rabia Durrani. And wives of both are housed in mausoleums of their own, which exist to this day.
So how do we analyze both? Contrary to proper beliefs, the reality is very different. Take bravery for instance. When a mad elephant charged the royal enclosure, Aurangzeb only 15, stood his ground, while Dara ran away in fright. When Aurangzeb was sent on war missions, he fought tooth and nail, and brought results for his father. When Dara was sent on a mission to Kandahar, he miserably failed at his task. He hired Hindu magicians (who told him that given the blood of a homosexual boy for magic rituals they could win the war) to do magic rites so that he could become the victor.
Take courtesy for another. Aurangzeb was polite and loving to all, even to the extent that it was resented by father as for a Prince who could mix with courtiers and ordinary people. Dara was rude, arrogant and very callous to others. No one loved him for his rude behavior. He could ridicule the grandest of the courtiers. He never tolerated any alternative point of view.
Take religion and deen as a way of life. Aurangzeb could give his life for Islam and Islamic values. Dara amusingly came up with the thesis that the Holy Quran cannot be understood unless the Hindu sacred books are not studied. The Quran was not complete without the Bhagawat Puranas. Dara left prayers, fasts in ramazan and all other rituals of Islam. He started wearing the Prabhu ring on his hand,worshiping stone gods, even acted and dressed like a Hindu. In a population mostly Hanafi Muslims in Indo-Pakistan region, this was highly resented by people. And he started moving with homosexuals like Sarmad, who walked usually naked in public presence, and people made fun of his antics.
As far as his loyalty was concerned. The day Shah Jahan got sick, Dara openly took command as King and tried to eliminate all his brothers before hand. Aurangzeb resisted till the last. And only stepped forward when there was no other choice. And what a father? Blinded by his love for Dara Shikoh, Shah Jahan went all the way to humiliate Aurangzeb and his way of life. The tyranny reached the extent when Shah Jahan made plans to have his son Aurangzeb killed, and the Prince only escaped the attempt by timely warning from his sister Roshan Ara Begum. One reason for his imprisonment.
Contrary to myths, Aurangzeb tried his best to keep his relation with Hindu subjects cool. He patronized them at court, gave them grants, and did his best for harmony. The temples he is reputed to have destroyed were the ones made by the STATE itself and was a political move to punish the Rajas who had rebelled against the State. Also to set them right for hampering education of Muslim children and interfering in their education. (Read Dr Ifftikhar, Dr Chaghatai, Maulana Shiblee and even Catherine Asher)
Aurangzeb did not murder his brother in any whimsical way. A war was fought and Dara Shikoh lost the war. He was presented before a proper tribunal with judges and they held him guilty of apostasy. And as a result he was sentenced to death. The accounts of Bernier, Manucci and Catrou are figments of their own petty imagination and has nothing to do with the truth. A sad thing to happen in all ways.
Aurangzeb patronized culture in all ways. The kingdom was no longer rich enough to do all things, but even then under him architecture flourished, a musavari khana (artists studio) was working, and contrary to myths the King was even fond of proper music. Miniatures exist in which he can be seen listening to song recitals with his family.
Aurangzeb did the impossible by making Fatwa-Alamgeeri, a modern text by top Muslim scholars of the time to codify Islamic laws. And he implemented the same. Only two persons had introduced the Islamic system. One Hazrat Umar, and the other Aurangzeb Alamgeer. He abolished all foolish royal customs, wore normal dress, and lived an austere life for the benefit of his people. A real dervesh King ahead of his times in all way. No small reason that our National Poet Dr Allama Iqbal had all praise for the Mughal King of the past.
(Excerpts from the forthcoming book on Dara Shikoh)
So is blood thicker than water? Yes, but ideas are thicker than any blood. When two communities lived in a region for more than 1000 years and could not reconcile to each other, then the solution became Pakistan. More on that later!
THE YEAR 1923 IS A VERY HISTORICAL YEAR IN THE HISTORY OF LAHORE FORT – PRESENCE OF ENGLISH GARRISON CAME TO AN END AND START OF THOROUGH RESEARCH FROM THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA MR R. HARGREAVES
The Hazuri Bagh was full of occupied British Garrison. In fact the father of E.D. Maclagan, the famous English diplomat, was an Army Engineering Officer, sitting in the structure above the Aurangzebi gate, and occupied the floor there in 1846. Captain Maclagan was doing things, sitting at a place a stone throw away from the Mandir of Loh. But imagine the rest. They had master minded the destruction of the Wall surrounding Lahore. And like the Sikhs before them, ruthlessly tore one monument after the other. The Army was stationed outside Lohari Gate, before being shifted to Mian Meer colony. Now imagine the Lahore Fort, full of British Army, with barracks everywhere. Caring no hoot for anything of historical interest. Breaking things whenever required. In fact in 1923 they said no to R. Hargreaves, Superintendent Lahore, of the Archaeological Survey of India. But then orders came and except for a small corner the whole place was given to the department. Which corner is open to research? All this is in the report of 1924, and we studied it properly. The fort was rescued by Lord Curzon and for him, the entrance was diverted from the main gate, and a new entrance made for his inspection. History is studied with such details.
“In 1923, with the abandonment of the fortress by the British garrison, the Archaeological Service of India, began the work of restoring, repairing, and preserving what remained of the ancient structures.”
“Before any decision could be reached as to the layout of the archaeological area, it was necessary to ascertain by trial trenches what ancient remains of the Mughal and Sikh period still existed underground. The operations go down and have revealed the existence of a large tank of unsuspected form, some of the fountains of the Sikh period, ruined hammams and other structures of which drawing have been made, the dismantling of the numerous modern additions to the historical buildings have yet to be undertaken. Th chief item of expenditure has been the six-foot iron railing to be erected around the historical area.”
A draftsman copied these excavations in a large number of drawings and these must be in some record office, perhaps the British library itself. Why is 1923 important to us?
The Hindu society Sanatan Dharma Yud Sabha was after the Superintendent Archaeological Survey of India, mainly R. Hargreaves, to excavate the so called Mandir of Loh (only they knew about it), and on 11th December, 1923, the Superintendent with a team of workers went with members of the Sanatan Dharma group to explore this site. It was filled with debris in a deep hollow and for two days, cleaning and digging the area, revelation on 13th December, 1923. And what was discovered were the bones of a GIANT of a person in it. Known as Nau-Guzza in Lahore. And that is a different story, and we will take it up next time. Enjoy solid information, instead of conjectures!
MANIPULATING HISTORICAL RECORDS INTO DIFFERENT VERSIONS; YES, LOH SON OF RAM CHANDAR NO WHERE IN HISTORY OF LAHORE.
It is very romantic to speak of the twin cities of Lahore and Kasur and link them to perhaps two brothers Loh (actually Lava) and Kasu (actually Kusa), son of the legendary god Ram Chandar of Hindu religion. Certainly, Loh is remembered as the son of Ram Chandar, but little is known of a brother Kasu. This Lahore idea was first floated by a Hindu writer Munshi Sujan Rai perhaps in 1691 AD (the amazing fact is that no old manuscript is known, and when it covers 40 years of Aurangzeb’s reign, all manuscripts have date of death of Aurangzeb too (years later), and the earliest manuscript is dated 1168 AH or 1754 AD and even that has some missing and replaced pages, and even more amazing of the five manuscripts known, not one has his name in it) in Khulasatul Tawareekh, as compared to simple statement of Lahori writer Ahmad Zanjani in Tuhfa Sawaleen in 1043 AD (648 years previous) which ridicules this conjecture. But nowhere was mentioned that his Mandir exist in the Lahore Fort. No mention of same even with Kanhaiya Lal in 1884, and up to the best of my knowledge it was Judge Muhammed Latif in 1892 AD, who narrated the existence of Mandir, and speaks of it being in a deep hollow which is descended by wooden stairs. Or rather ladder if you call it. Not very clear really. Made to mention but no image in his book.
Mian Muhammed Fauq is a well-known historian of our region and has written on Lahore too. Rare to find his books, we come across the in different conditions. But very strangely there is a strange mention in his book on Lahore, related to the Lahore Fort. Let us translate what he has to say in understandable terms:
“Besides the mosques in Lahore Fort, there is a Mandir in the fort, that even today proves the bigheartedness of the Mughals Emperors, This Mandir is in a space with a huge pit in it. It is said that this pit is that of Raja Loh, son of Raja Ram Chandar, who is responsible for making New Lahore. The level is same as the Fort, there is a reason for it that it is very old and Mughals left it intact. In reference to this Mandir, the society Sanatan Dharm Yudah Salba were having letters communication with the Government. So on 11th December, 1923, members of Yud Sahba, and Superintendent of Archaeology went to see the same, and this area was covered with debris, the same area was cleaned from all sides. Cleaning the Mandir or Samadh, and one can see a dilapidated dome (gum band) and under two feet one could see leaves and earth all around. This two feet deep one could see a flower. Its level is same as that of Hazuri Bagh. After cleaning and digging, on 13th December, 1923, there were discovered bones of hands which at present generation comparison, were very large, and the face had very sharp teeth which were also discovered there. After studying them it seems that at that time, humans were much taller and stronger at old days. These bones were taken into possession by Sanatan Dharm as being the bones of Loh, son of Ram Chandar. However, the Department of Archaeology thought that these bones were of pre-Buddhist times of some extra ordinary large person. “
Ahmad Hasan Dani, a world-famous scholar said the same in different terms:
In 1973 the legendary scholar of Pakistan Ahmad Hasan Dani delivered a lecture on “Al-Beruni” in the city of Kabul. Amazing that Kabul is seen as hosting a Pakistani scholar. But Kabul was a city of intellect and arts for a long time. Not surprising that it happened then. Dani Sahib in his erudite way explains everything. His dismisses the so-called connection of Loh son of Ram with Lahore and we attach the paragraph on same. Worthy of being read. But most interesting he isolates different Lahores and capitals and names. And he says that the city was founded near the river IRAWATI (present Ravi), and that is why it was called IRAWATIAWAR. It was later modified with use as RAVAWAR. He says Panini’s grammar tells us that RA and LA are interchangeable grammarian words, and that is why we have the word LAHAWAR, or presently LAHORE itself. Lahore is simply by tradition CITY ON RAVI.
If this had existed in Emperor Jahangir’s time, he would have built a grand mausoleum over it. It was certainly not a prehistoric structure and nor could one call it a Neanderthal grave. It was a combination of Sikh and British architecture for the various bricks used were of Sikh and British period. The Dome was naturally a poor fluted melon dome of the late Sikh period. It was so small in structure with a circular window on opposite end that it actually looked merely like a small well. The depth of the inside was not comprehended, and the inside floor was closed too. No one could enter it nor lit anything over it. No lingam there. It had no match with any Mandir in the world. But it was asserted as Mandir of Loh, thousands of years old. The structure was not even 150 years of age. Everybody wanted to jump to their own conclusions. The pressure of international lobby of Sanatan Dharm, founded by Bhadashi Maraj in Trinidad and Tobago in 1881, was very evidently there. The Hindu lobby was asserting itself.
Every day science is discovering missing links in human evolution. Very recently the DRAGON SKULL came out of China, and scientists excited over a new link to human story. One does not know what happened to the bones taken by Hindu lobby, but if there one could trace its DNA and finish once for all this absurd story about LOH and KASU related to Lahore. A silly hypothesis without any proof of any kind. And the amazing part is that these are the two same sons who fought with their father for questioning the fidelity of their mother after return from Shri Lanka. People do not read history, just follow directions of foreign lobbies.
CHUGHTAI MUSEUM ANNOUNCES WITH GREAT PLEASURE RESTORATION OF OUR WEBSITE WITH LATEST TECHNOLOGY
The website started in 2008 and was visited by art lovers from all over the world. But that site was based on Adobe Flash and when the facilities for same came to an end, the website faced many glitches. A lot of friends offered to help, but our trusted expert worked on it day and night to restore it to its present heights. It was ahead of its time in year 2008, and it is still ahead in this year 2023.
MAILING LIST OF CHUGHTAI MUSEUM; TIME TO UPDATE THINGS FOR FUTURE; YOUR ENDURING COOPERATION THERE; REVISE ADD YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS.
Our first mailing list was created in 1976. Information Officer at USIS and the Director American Centre Lahore, helped us in revising our first mailings. From time to time we kept revising it, and at one time it went to 2000 cards posted from us. All visitors volunteered their address and these were added to the list. But times change.
Many people die, many go away to other places. In Pakistan there is no formula for people to leave their new addresses. Inevitable cards get lost, or returned to us. Nowadays sending a printed card is a high cost process, not only in printing the same, the cost of envelopes, the higher postal stamps, or courier charges. And a newer thing that cards get stolen by post offices for stamps on them, reflecting the present pitiable economic circumstances, literally of the post people. This wastage can be avoided with update lists.
Our process is not sending invitations by email or by phone call. We like to send you something which can be kept as a record and here too we give you a catalogue, and for many years printed brochures of our research. We also had times when we invited international scholars from abroad to lecture on the Art of Chughtai. Higher costs have made that venture of seating 500 people, giving air tickets to foreigners and their stay at a five star hotel, literally impossible. Obviously any non commercial organization will run out of their liquid reserves.
We like to keep sending you invitation cards. Cooperate with us by sending us your name and full address, no other information is required by us. Our priority is you being an art lover, and not part of that crowd which goes to destroy the tranquility of any function, rather than enhancing it. Interesting feature is that instead of art lovers, we get more of those kinds of people, who are at the roots of cultural terrorism in the country. Yes you must have heard of all kinds of terrorisms, but these are times of high signs of people encoding themselves to undo our ideology in Culture as well as the Arts. These people fear Ideology more than other things prevailing in our country. We are not only an Islamic country, we are not a religious country based on the outdated concept of same. Our thoughts are Iqballian, that is the reconstruction of religious thought in Islam, and we consider in light of thinking scholars of Islam as a challenge to Religion. It is not a relation between Allah and humanity, but a code of life, prescribed by Allah for the welfare of humanity.
HOWEVER MUCH A CONFUSION, CLARITY REMAINS; TWO NATIONS CAN CO-EXIST BUT NOT BECOME ONE; AN ANALYSIS OF MANDIRS AND MOSQUES.
The Two-nation theory is a Quranic fact, and pseudo intellectuals and secular extremists, and Mullah bigots, tend to try to confuse Pakistan and the people of the world. The Quran forbids other ways of life to be imposed upon, having every right to live their way of life. But that does not mean that our way of life can be the same. Our beloved leader Quaid-e-Azam simply told us long ago:
“Hindus and Mussulmans belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter dine and indeed, they belong to two different civilizations. which are based namely on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their concepts on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They are different epics, different heroes, and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other and likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a simple state, one as a numerical minority, and the other as a majority may lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the Government of such a state.”
This was crystal clear to the Muslims of the region, and most of them left their geographical homes, for their ideological ones. The internet and printed sources are at hands of foreign lobbies to confuse people. While India has been busy destroying Muslim relics in India, including a number of mosques (even the Taj Mahal is a target), along with graves of Muslim Kings, like one of Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgeer itself. All through built up false narratives to boggle minds and hearts of people. Here their protagonists are exploring Hindu Havelis, and Mandirs, in quest to restore the Mandirs here. Our broad mindedness can be seen by the fact that we have already restored many MANDIRS in Pakistan. That includes Katas Raj, and even the broken Jain Mandir has been rebuilt with pride. Before the destruction of the Babari Masjid in India, most of the Mandirs in Lahore were intact. Even the golden pinnacles could always be seen from the roof tops. Aggression invited retaliation, and that from emotional crowds, not in any way intellectuals of our country.
Obviously, a number of scholars have given their views, including very objective intellectuals. For example, Percy Brown, enumerates it like this:
“Nothing could illustrate more graphically, the religious and racial diversity, or emphasize more decisively the principles underlying the consciousness of each community, than the contrast between their respective places of worship, as represented by the mosque on the one hand, and the temple on the other. Compared with the clarity of the mosque, the temple is an abode of mystery; the courts are open to light and air, with many doorways inviting publicity, the latter encloses a ‘phantasma of massive darkness’ having sober passages leading to dim cells, jealously guarded and remote.
In view of such n antithesis of spiritual and aesthetic concepts as are embodied in these typical structures, it will be clear that any syncretism between the two communities, would present almost insurmountable difficulties, and that even after the first antagonism has subsided, they could rarely meet on the same intellectual plane. On the one hand the rhythmic mind of the Hindus, and the other the formal mind of the Mussulman.”
Scholars have delved in the history of the arrival of Islam into India with various causes. We will take the matter in another blog. But the main reason is not the Sword as hardly a limited number in the invading army, but the actual stroke was EGALITARIANISM, the quality in Islamic structure, compared with the class system of the Hindus. It was not ordinary thing for the deprived Hindu of lower class being treated as human beings, resulting in massive conversions and acceptance without malice of any kind. Yes, a place where SLAVES became KINGS, not with their DNA, but with their merits in various fields. Yes, it was a victory of sympathy, compassion and empathy which won the game without any sword.
There are persons seeking Mandirs in Lahore. You will find most of them belonging to the 19th century. WHY? For after the War of Independence or the Mutiny, the Muslims were totally suppressed by the British rulers, and Hindus patronized as a class. Hindus were rich after the Mutiny, Muslims mainly remained poor, except a small minority on the payroll of the ruling class. The same continues to this day.
MANY MUGHAL MINIATURES CARRY NAME OF BEHZAD LAHORI, AS INSCRIPTIONS ON THE ART WORKS THEMSELVES BUT SADLY DISMISSED BY WESTERN SCHOLARS BY COMPARISON WITH USTAD KAMALUDDIN BEHZAD, WHO IS NATURALLY DIFFERENT PAINTER
Western scholarship lost the ability to look like locals and locals lost the ability to look at all. Some common sense about ourselves only we have and the world is forewarned about it. One relates to the artist Behzad. We are so familiar with the great Ustad Kamaluddin Behzad, that if we see the name anywhere else, we think of it as someone trying to forge a work in the name of the great Master. Not always so, indeed. The Iranians boasted of a most famous modern Behzad of their own. We also have a 16th century Behzad Lahori and there are few paintings we can calmly claim to be his own. For instance, the Jain Miniature is not by Ustad Sheikh Basawan but by Behzad Lahori, and many have mistaken this as a wrong attribution. Not so. There are miniatures of European women which are linked to the brush of Behzad Lahori. The Darab-nama in the British Museum is also one of them. We have tried to give you some visuals of same.
Who was Behzad Lahori? This takes us to the Mussavari khana in Lahore Fort and Khawaja Abdul Samad, one of the pioneers of Mughal Art in our region. Abdul Samad brought two young sons with him when he came to Lahore from Kabul. One was Khawajah Shareef and the other was Behzad Mussawar. Khawajah Shareef was a great scholar and poet having the takhallus ‘Farsi’ as his poetic name. Stray manuscripts carry his name. The same goes for Behzad Lahori, who was reared up and lived his life in Lahore, and later died here at a young age. He was first brought to our notice by one of the greatest Persian scholar of Pakistan, Hafiz Mahmud Khan Shairani. Professor Shairani pointed out that this painter was definitely of this region and was the son of Khawajah Abdul Samad.
Professor Shairani who had seen the Darab nama in the British Museum itself, spelled it in clear terms. This was later certified by the famous Western Scholar Dr Laurence Binyon, who said:
“A not very distinguished group in the sixteenth century Indian Darab Namah at the British Museum, London, bears the inscription, that the work of Behzad was corrected by Khawajah Abdul Samad.”
Other paintings of Behzad are found in the Changez nama in the Bankipur library, Patna. So the presence of Ustad Behzad Lahori is felt here and there. The latest inclusion is a miniature with inscriptions on it and the same refers to it as the work of Behzad. Again confusion prevailed in western scholarship and calls this old inscription as a mistake when it is not. It is the work of Behzad Lahori.
The work in our archives of European Musicians have the same line over the mountain in the background as this miniature and we can easily see it to be the work of Behzad Lahori. We have used it for mere review purposes to compare both works and come to proper conclusions. Include this name in references to foundation of Mughal Art. P.S.
A beautiful thesis by artist Ms Razzia Feroze exist on Behzad. A book on him by Dr Abdullah Chaghatai. And a write up by Abdur Rahman Chughtai, too. The Master covered by our people too.
RUTHLESS DISMANTLING OF MUGHAL MONUMENTS THE SERAI OF NAWAB WAZEER KHAN UNDER BRITISH AXE Nothing was safe from them
The British bureaucracy today presents us with a very healthy image of themselves. Like saviours of a vanquished race, they soft peddle us on everything. But most people would hesitate in believing anything about them. However the fact remains that after the pillage of thousands of Islamic monuments by Sikhs, the British were equally responsible for this carnage to our heritage. Who would believe that tenders were issued for the marble of the Taj Mahal itself ? The bulldozers were there in the compound to take it down. When marble of other monuments were sent for sale to Italy, they did not fetch a good price and the prospects of dismantling more, remained in limbo. It was Lord Curzon who came to the rescue of the Monuments of Hindustan and we give him full credit for his contributions.
Some of the greatest Mughal monuments in history of Lahore were destroyed in the process. Mention is made of the Sheesh Mahal of Nawab Asif Khan, which was there in Sikh times. Ainah Khanah of Prince Dara Shikoh met the same fate. The City Walls as well as many Gates of Lahore were raised to the ground. Conquering civilizations are ruthless and know no mercy. Such is also the fate of the SERAI OF NAWAB WAZEER KHAN outside Delhi Gate Lahore, which was more commonly known as GOLA SERAI. In historical records mention of the Serai is there. But nobody knew where it was and what it looked liked in all ways! In 1904 a traveler passing through Lahore made some photographs and with that contribution, we have two visual images of the Serai in Lahore.
E.D. Maclagan in one of his writings around 1910, talks of the dismantling of the Gola Serai and adds that there were tile mosaics on it. He says the Gateway to the Serai had Angels on both sides of the Gate. We find similar angels in the Hammam of Nawab Wazeer Khan, as well as the tile Mosaics of the Lahore Fort. Our idea gets complete and further consolidates the fact that most of the tile mosaics of Lahore Fort are the work of the period of Emperor Shah Jahan. Living history is often reduced to references in books, and even those books are lost in time. But that is life. When people give up their freedom, they lose many things. Culture and aesthetics are a small part of it. The fourth generation war has brought Cultural Terrorism too. We write about it all the time.
AN AMAZING DOCUMENT OF MUSLIM CARING OF CHRISTIANS COMMUNITY YES, ACHTINAME SECOND YEAR OF HIJRA BY PROPHET MUHAMMED (PBUH)
Today the relations between Muslims and Christian is a buzz word. Nobody care to look at the back ground of same. In the second year of Hijra, taking into account the possible insecurity of Christians with Islamic advancement, the Prophet (PBUH) engendered a testament which was written by Hazrat Ali, Blessings of Allah be upon him too. It was a literal grant to the Christian community in the area of Mount Sinai, and it ensured a peaceful co existence between the two communities. The Prophet (PBUH) himself put the impressions of his palm on the document. It guaranteed the Monks and the Christian families every kind of freedom to practice their religion as well as sanctity of their place of worship.
The original document existed for many centuries and was with the Turkish Sultans. But copies of same were made over time We here attach a copy made in 1858 but literally it has everything word to word that the original said in the 2nd Hijri. It is an eye opener in today’s world where the magnificent attitude of the Muslims is totally disregarded with time. Even the Bible was translated into Arabic in those times and we will talk more about it later. Till then enjoy the epitome of Muslims Christians relation in a document!