ENGINEERING SCHOOL LAHORE 1853 UNDER ENGLISH ENGINEER; A LAHORI CHIRAGH DIN MIMAR ENLISTED SAME ON REGULAR PAY.
Tracing back Maclagan School of Engineering, nowadays Engineering University not an easy task. The college in Mughalpura was founded in 1921. The engineering school’s original name was Mughalpura Engineering College, which was renamed after Maclagan in 1923. But does one know that there was an Engineering School in Lahore inside Delhi Gate that existed as far back as 1853, and it was administered by an Engineer from Signals, namely Charles Marineau. This fellow had rented some rooms in Anarkalli around 1873 too. That shows a long stay here.
But the amazing thing is that this British engineer enlisted a local resident of Wazeer Khan Chowk for regular pay in his school, probably for work and teaching purposes, and this is in 1854. The man Chiragh din Mimar was related to Imam Bibi (perhaps father), who was from the famous Mimar family of Lahore. In fact, the certificate mentions a Kareem Baksh too. This could be Mian Kareem Baksh Mimar son of Mian Raheem Baksh Mimar, or Kareem Baksh Bindrigar, father of Azizuddin of Chowk Wazeer Khan, Lahore. Wedding nayondras in 1870s mention Chiragh Naqsha-nawees again and again, as well as Muhammed Khan Naqsha-nawees. And interesting an Englishman lives in the neighbourhood and attends the weddings too, and is known as Mirza Angrez. This is probably Charles Marineau. He has become like family to these people.
There is a letter related to Chiragh Din Mimar on a visit to build and restore a Bagh in the state of Jammu. On the back of the letter is a rough sketch of a Bagh. This is not dated, but certainly 19th century . That means this Mimar educated under a British engineer went far and wide in his work schedule. The request is allotment for land in Muzaffarabad for Shala Bagh, and there is mention of a British Colonel in it too. History is built on small documentation, when no one records it at that time. Interesting history of an engineering school in Lahore. Enjoy!
AN EXCEPTIONAL METAL ENGRAVER OF LAHORE NAMELY PIR BAKSH; MAKER OF FINE SWORDS AND POSSIBLY MAKER OF ASTROLABES TOO.
The end of 18th century as well as first half of 19th century was supposed to be a difficult period of Lahore. But we saw creativity blooming from 1750 to 1800 AD, and can wonder why? In many ways the troubled Sikh period of the three scavengers in Lahore were ruining the life of the citizens. But the streets of Lahore were named after professionals in various fields. Arms and ammunition makers abounded in Lahore. Bomb makers were here in form of clay grenades. Swords, bows, and arrows. Even gunsmiths making guns. This was before the British outlawed them and they shifted their working to the tribal areas. This may startle some people of the background of the gun making activity in tribal areas, originated in the city of Lahore, a place where even cannons were made in that period. Zam-zam is just one example.
Obviously, the best things were not made for common people but the elite of the city. A sword made on request of some Nawab Sahib is with us. The name of the Nawab has been erased for various reasons, but the mention of Nawab, ends with the name of maker as PIR BAKSH LAHORI. No date is written on same. There is an Astrolabe made by one Ustad Pir Baksh Lahore in 1841 in the Lahore Museum. He may be the same person and may be related to the famous Astrolabe family of in Mohalla Langar Khan, near old Anarkalli. We have manuscripts written in same mohalla in Mughal period.
In any case enjoy a rare sword with gold inlay. Unfortunately, someone has melted the gold and stolen it with time. But history remains intact minus the name of the Nawab who had the sword, who could be Nawab Adina Beg Khan himself. Enjoy!
A STRANGE CHARACTER WHO RAISED HIMSELF FROM ORDINARY LIFE, BY SHEER SHREWDNESS TO BE THE ACTING GOVERNOR OF THE PUNJAB DIRECT NEIGHBOUR OF MIMAR FAMILY IN MOHALLA CHABUK SAWARAN.
Governor for five months only. Little is known about Adina Beg Khan. A small 12-page manuscript supplies us with most of information about him. Very few have written about him. The article by Dr Muhammed Baqir is very illuminating, but the most information is collected by Dr Hari Ram Gupta Of F.C. College, Lahore. Interestingly it is literally impossible to even find this printed source on Adina Beg Khan. A very rare book of 55 pages. Some books in Urdu are romantic fictions. Sikh story telling is contrived history at most, for gullible consumption.
Adina Beg Khan was by caste an Arain, and born in Sharkpur in Tehsil Lahore, in the house of a common person by name of Channu. However due to reasons, he was brought up by a Mughal family and identified himself as a Mughal. His skills were extraordinary in every way and he knew how to manipulate people as well a situation. And his rise is very much due to his ability for manipulating things. It is reported that he married a Syed girl, but finding out that she was a Syed, he divorced her but gave her maintenance all his life. The truth looks different. It is said that he married a street girl and had a son and a daughter by her. The daughter was married to Khawaja Mirza Khan and the son tried to take his position after his death but failed, for he lacked the abilities of his father.
From the position of a Patwari, he ended up as the Governor of the province, by doing one thing or the other, and black mailing people into serving him. But he did enjoy the highest position in the Punjab and that for one year too. There were three strong parties. The Mughals, the Sikhs and the Mahrattas, and he played all three against each other, getting the best out of situations. The present governmental trait of buying land cheap and then selling same at high prices was his forte. It seems people today are direct spiritual descendants of Adina Beg Khan.
Stories are there about his character losing his outward calm at moments. The incident of the JAM seller grocer comes to mind. A grocer refused to sell jam to his servant. Adina Beg Khan sent another person to buy the jam and this fellow did as the grocer could not identify his link with the actual buyer. When Adina Beg Khan found out, he ordered the grocer to be burnt alive in oil. It was with great reluctance that he was cajoled to rescind his sentence. A life for a jam was at stake, as honour was involved in transaction.
We noticed in a deed to our house in Mohalla Chabuk Sawaran dated 1759 AD, as reference to land and property owned by Adina Beg Khan as a neighbor to the Mimar family of Lahore. We were truly surprised. Here was an information not recorded anywhere else of his holdings in Lahore. We decided to add the information to the history of Adina Beg Khan. We will research that document, and present the view of same.
It should be remembered that our people are in the habit of distorting history by presenting non provable versions of things. We use documents and books to present our case. Anyone willing to refute us, should present documentary evidence. Not family gossips for historical consumption.
LAST DAY OF ARTIST M.A. RAHMAN CHUGHTAI; THE FIRST EFFORTS OF ARIF RAHMAN CHUGHTAI: FIRST CLARION CALL TO PRESERVE LEGACY OF ART.
It was totally unsettling. A note (now literally historical hours before his death) I wrote reminds me that M.A. Rahman Chughtai was not well. He called me in the morning to see me and shook hands with me, not letting my hands go. I was disturbed. I told him there is nothing wrong with him. A cup of coffee would drown his sleepiness etc. But he was sure that he was going. In the evening when we went for a doctor in Samna bad, and it became late, and when we arrived at home, lights were on. Our home servant Arshad Sadokee was there to tell me that my father was dead. Of all things I locked the car and went to my room and where I sat all night. Thinking. What to do?
Full credit goes to my school friend Pervaiz Ashraf who stayed with me all night. And he was also delivering messages to families and friends. It was he who went to the house of Abdullah Chaghatai and did not have the heart to tell him about the death. He just said that the health of the artist had deteriorated. It led to the confusion in the minds of uncle Abdullah Chaghatai that the date of death was 18th January, 1975, which certainly was not so. Perceptions lead to mistakes. Historians have no right to jump to conclusions.
The next day the burial took place as Amanat in the Miani qabarastan. No response from official quarters. We had requested the Government to give a national place for the burial of the artist and had suggested the Hazuri Bagh enclosure outside the Badshahi mosque Lahore. The next day there were gatherings in the house. A team from the Chief Minister Punjab had come to receive the Chief Minister Punjab Hanif Ramay. Indeed, Hanif Ramay came, said dawa for the artist, and WITHOUT MEETING ME OR MY MOTHER, left the place. It was an amazing condolence visit without meeting the bereaved family at all. The conspiracy was on foot.
A plan of action was in my mind. We would not take things lying down, and will fight against all odds. We will detail the happenings with the Federal government, the Government in Punjab and various issues eventually. But this is our reaction. On 23rd January, 1975, I wrote the note “The last breath”, and we sent it for publication the very next day. On 24th January, 1975, we were planning the letter form for our planned “Chughtai Academy of Arts”. We received the pamphlet on the 27th January, 1975, and we started distributing it from a room in our house. People came, each one had their own view. But the massive opinion was to submit to the highway bound dacoits and let them waste sixty years of my father’s work and preservation, nothing at all. A stupid relative with lowest IQ suggested that it was not my job to build museums, and if I had enough money, I would better give same to my poor relatives like him. His mouth was also watering in anticipation of trying to steal things including our property. A previous owner of a cinema on Mcleod road was suggesting that we give everything to India, as they will know how to care for same. I can only amaze myself as to suggestions I was receiving from such people. Nothing patriotic from them.
We were without resources. Our guts were being questioned. The future looked bleak in all ways. My mother had nothing, my sister had nothing and I had nothing. Most of the property was in alien hands. But the will was strong. We were not going to let waste my fathers efforts. I remember for two years as he was sick I used to give a ‘thapra’ on his back and tell him again and again not to worry. But he had already tried many, he had little hope of success from our side. Our determination he could not believe in results.
I had communicated his death to many known foreign heads of States and dignitaries. Response was received from many of them and our archives are full of their condolences. But under threat we sent TELEGRAMS to many of them, to save us from the tyranny of the times. Somebody listened. Somebody powerful nough to kick the butts of people in power. The struggle had begun. Two books are being planned. The first “Legacy of M.A. Rahman Chughtai”. The second the “Legacy of Chughtai Museum”. We hope we can print both for the future. Art and Culture is a minority affair these days. My father’s role was to make it more of a public affair. More people knew of Chughtai art, than any other artist in Pakistan. The word ‘Chughtai art” fell into Urdu lexigraphy as denoting something beautiful. In Urdu movies the hero used to praise his beloved by calling her as Chughtai art. An iconic legend within his life time, the legend of M.A. Rahman Chughtai is ever alive. And we are proud that we too had a hand in same against heavy odds.
HIDDEN MONUMENTS AND PRE-MUGHAL DOMES SOME LAHORI SITES OUT OF SIGHT OF PEOPLE: HUGH DOMES OF UNKNOWN PRE-MUGHAL TIMES.
Memories are short. People out live them. They forget them. Things known become unknown over a period of time. Their nomenclature changes. New legends are woven on unknown objects. But actual objects survive and can be studied on their own merit. There are a number of monuments in Lahore with a question mark over them.
No sane person believes in miracles. An incident has to be reconciled with our intelligence. Miracles woven around Sufis and Faqeers are not for us to understand, believe, or relate in any way. We leave that to the imagination of people to believe in whatever they want to believe in. History requires documentation not old people’s tales.
It is said that construction in Ghazanavid times was based on bricks joined with mud (not choona mortar), that is why hardly anything of that period remains. What remains is some doors of Ghazanavid Seljuk period. Some are in the Victoria and Albert Museum. (taken from Lahore itself during a rainy flood here), some in the Lahore Museum and a rare one with Chughtai Museum, taken from the vicinity of Machi Hata in Lahore. Figurines of the Sultanate period are discovered in Lahore. Even some lamps with kufi writing on them. Dr Abdullah Chaghatai saw a mosque of Ghazanavid period when there was some digging in Rang Mahal Lahore. Some manuscripts also do exist in the world.
But what about buildings? We study some of them. The first one to notice is the newly made mausoleum of PIR HANJARWAL. Residents tell a story; facts tell other things. A journalist writes:
Moving further on the Multan Road, one comes across Hanjarwal, just after the factory of Waves appliances. This notorious village is now known for its political violence. It is dominated by the Khokhars, and one often hears of murderers and dacoits from this village. The village is said to have been established around the time of Emperor Jahangir, as the shrine of the person who founded the village, Peer Hanjar, provides those dates. However, when we visited the shrine with an architect friend, he surmised that the original structure of the building has architectural features from the 14th century. The elders gathered here told us that there used to be a caravanserai here, next to which there was a baoli. It is also said that an old wooden door is also preserved here.
The stories about MUSA AHANGAR are more numerous. It is a mausoleum with a history extending back to Lodhi period. Died in Akbar’s time. Also buried here is the beautiful Hindu woman who converted to Islam and was enamoured with the Sheikh.The tomb of Hasu Telli is recalled too. A manuscript in verse written by Surat Singh son of Dhuni Chand from 1055 AH, 1645 AD to 1057 AH, 1647 AD in praise of his saint is entitled TAZHKIRA HASU TELI. Hasu Teli was a wheat seller in Lahore in a shop in Chowk Jhaunda inside Lohari Gate, Lahore. He used to weigh the wheat in a dishonest way and after becoming a disciple of Shah Jamal Lahori left his corrupt ways. He stopped selling wheat and embarked on a career of selling oil. To this day a lamp is lighted in his shop by well-wishers. His tomb is also in Lahore and described in detail by Judge Muhammed Lateef in his history of Lahore. Surat Singh became a revenue official in Lahore and became a disciple of Hasu Teli and used to contribute to the welfare of his saint’s burial place. Stories attached to Baba Guru Nanak are also mentioned here. Credit to this discovery goes to Aligarh University’s Dr Razavi.
SIPAHSALAR ALI GOHAR is reputed to be a General of the Ghaznavids. but there is much confusion about him. In any case he is buried in the village of Mahmudabad, founded by Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi. No one has bothered to study this ancient mausoleum.
A wave of novice workers is churning out videos and writings with access to no solid source or evidence. These are contributing to further falsification of our already falsified history. No one to check same. Commercial feasibility out doing truth.
THE START OF PORTRAITURE IN ISLAMIC PAINTING; THE CLIMAX OF PORTRAITURE IN ISLAMIC PAINTING: THE PORTRAYAL OF SULTANS IN PERIODS OF TIME.
Figurative works were there in the first Islamic coins. Most famous are the Caliph coins, just a few decades after inception of Islamic life. The figurative coins were in vogue, when upset started with religious fanatics trying to railroad modernism in approach at that time. This aesthetic fight generated carries on still in the shadow of Mulla’s, which has nothing to do with the Quran. More than a thousand years ago images of Suwar ul Kawakeeb penetrated Islamic manuscripts. But portraiture was still lacking in spirit.
Fatimid painting spearheaded the growth of figurative work. In 1180 AD, during the reign of the Sultan, we have miniatures of Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi. It is a magnificent portraiture done in the life time of the Sultan. Sultan was on throne at that time. The craze for portraiture went on for centuries. We can surely reproduce many of them. But it ends in our life time with M.A. Rahman Chughtai. He is responsible for lots of portraitures, at times imaginary, but always with focus on that period, including ethnicity costumes and lay out etc. A portraiture relevant to the times of the figure undertaken by him. So, enjoy start to evolution of portraitures. So obviously we will talk more of this historical evolution of aesthetics. The most amazing discoveries are presence of sculptures of Caliphs in the main city square like the cities of Samarra. More on that later. Enjoy!
HEROES AND VILLAINS MADE BY LOBBIES ALLERGIC TO OBJECTIVITY; THERE IS CULTURAL SIDE OF MIR MANNU GOVERNOR OF PUNJAB.
Often two civilizations are actually not at war. It is the representatives of civilization at one given time which involve themselves in atrocious acts. If we study regional history, the Sikhs and Muslims have their ups and downs. Many times indulged in unimaginable acts. Not ways of life but groups of people at one given time. But writing about such things in objectivity is really not possible, because history writing is not always in hands of sane people. War mongering is the name of the game. Fancy stories are fed. This is story of the Sikhs and Muslims in the 18th century. But E.M. Forster in his letters write of the conflict in 1783, which is very near the events that are spoken by historians. The most atrocious events are blanked in one party forays alone.
” The Siques….. they besieged… they took the city of Lahore…committed violent outrages. The mosques that had been ever rebuilt or restored to use by the Mohammedans, were demolished with every mark of contempt and indignation; and the Afghans in chains, washed the foundations with the blood of hogs.”
In response what would happen? The same kind of treatment, if not less but even more. Whereas stories of Mir Mannu are painted as facts when many are just fancy fairy tales, Sikh historians fail to write their own failings in sequence. It is not for us to write all the misgivings, but few blatant truths. In the so-called paradise of Maharajah Ranjit Singh, the Muslims were not even allowed to say their prayers as “Azan” was not allowed. It was British who impressed upon Maharajah Sher Singh to restore same. About 3000 Muslim buildings such as mosques and monuments were ruthlessly destroyed. This is history not accusations. And what happened to trains and Muslims coming back to Pakistan is history in itself. Literally slaughtered. But Sikhs are emotional people (easily riled up), and so are we. We too have the capacity to forget and forgive. Let gone be bygone and start anew. It has not always worked, but one has to keep on trying in good faith. No alternative to peace and co-existence.
But this is not a political dialogue. It is to approach the personality of Mir Mannu, Governor of Punjab in the cultural context. For some very important years, he was the ruler of the region, and all these petty States came under his direct rule. That Mir Mannu was held in esteem is known from the number of portraits made of him by various artists. Verses written on miniatures praise his victories and lament his defeats. Indian scholars are adept at distorting history with innuendoes. Mention is hazardous to them. But one picture made at the Darbar of Mir Mannu beats them all. A pair of foreigners sexually attack dancers at a party thrown by Mir Mannu. An inscription calls them Europeans. However, the caps look Russian. Both young men have different colour complexions. Frilly hair styles. Both wild with sexual frenzy and Mir Mannu laughing at their follies. The Court amazed at this reaction too. Part of a group of paintings now lost.
Bought in Lahore by a European traveler in 19th century. Probably sold by first antique dealer of Lahore, Bahadur Shah. The dealer who used to supply things to Western museums. There is a family in Lahore, descendent from Mughalani Begum, and they have many documents about that period of time, as told to me by late Asghar Amritsari. Rarely followed. History is an ongoing process of time. Record and omit are lessons of life.
The death of Mir Mannu is lamentable. Seen as an obstruction, he was poisoned to death. He fell from his horse, dead, and his upper torso had gone all black. The food he took before that. And other lament Hira Singh had his bones removed, and the skull of Mir Mannu was placed on his gutter (mori pay rakh deya), so that filthy water would wash the heroism of the valiant son of Punjab. All these things are concealed with time by historians. One version has it that his body was buried in Cognito in the graveyard of Hazrat Eshan. The proclaimed tomb housed the alcohol shop of Gurdit Singh. Who knows? No one even wants to know. Tell us myths, we will believe them. As time passes heroes become villains and villains become heroes. Allah knows best!
FROM THE FAME OF TAFSEER HUSSAINI OF HERAT, TO THE MATALIB QURAN OF G.A. PERVEZ OF LAHORE
“Mawahib i aliyah” often known as Tafseer Hussaini is commentary composed between 897 A H and 899 A H, and dedicated to the famous Mir Al Sher Nawai, was done by Kamal ud din Hussain son of Ali Waiz Kashfi, who was Imam of the Jamia Masjid in Herat. This Tafseer Hussaini caught on with the people of this region and was used in most houses as well as Madrassas in our region. He died in 910 AH/1499 AD. A world figure himself, he was brother-in-law of the famous Maulana Jami of Herat, an additional prestige to his name. In all cases manuscripts of Tafseer Hussaini are in abundance and were much loved and respected in Lahore too. Chughtai Museum has prestigious copies of it too.
There were tafseers written here earlier too, but those never became popular. Ghulam Ahmad Pervez was a revolutionary thinker of his own times. He lived in Delhi and from there he settled in Karachi, and finally moved to Lahore. He was an ardent student of the Quran and left in his own legacy, not a translation but an interpretation of the Quran, which was so much attractive to thinkers of our own times. Not many people know about the same but whoever has a thinking mind, gives credit to G.A. Pervez for making the Quran as a reference itself, in line with the introduction of Dr Allama Iqbal to take Islam in its original pristine value, instead of looking at the Persianized version of the same. Go to the Arabic context itself. This work is certainly a work of the future and will be attractive to people, once they get rid of the Mullah element in casting conspiracies about every aspect of Islam.
There is a manuscript of Tafseer Hussain written in Lahore by Lutufullah Ahmad Muhandis in his last days in two volumes. It has the seal of Muhammed Abid, another son of Lutufullah Ahmad Muhandis. More on this later. Till then enjoy!
MANIPULATING HISTORICAL RECORDS INTO DIFFERENT VERSIONS; YES, LOH SON OF RAM CHANDAR NO WHERE IN HISTORY OF LAHORE.
It is very romantic to speak of the twin cities of Lahore and Kasur and link them to perhaps two brothers Loh (actually Lava) and Kasu (actually Kusa), son of the legendary god Ram Chandar of Hindu religion. Certainly, Loh is remembered as the son of Ram Chandar, but little is known of a brother Kasu. This Lahore idea was first floated by a Hindu writer Munshi Sujan Rai perhaps in 1691 AD (the amazing fact is that no old manuscript is known, and when it covers 40 years of Aurangzeb’s reign, all manuscripts have date of death of Aurangzeb too (years later), and the earliest manuscript is dated 1168 AH or 1754 AD and even that has some missing and replaced pages, and even more amazing of the five manuscripts known, not one has his name in it) in Khulasatul Tawareekh, as compared to simple statement of Lahori writer Ahmad Zanjani in Tuhfa Sawaleen in 1043 AD (648 years previous) which ridicules this conjecture. But nowhere was mentioned that his Mandir exist in the Lahore Fort. No mention of same even with Kanhaiya Lal in 1884, and up to the best of my knowledge it was Judge Muhammed Latif in 1892 AD, who narrated the existence of Mandir, and speaks of it being in a deep hollow which is descended by wooden stairs. Or rather ladder if you call it. Not very clear really. Made to mention but no image in his book.
Mian Muhammed Fauq is a well-known historian of our region and has written on Lahore too. Rare to find his books, we come across the in different conditions. But very strangely there is a strange mention in his book on Lahore, related to the Lahore Fort. Let us translate what he has to say in understandable terms:
“Besides the mosques in Lahore Fort, there is a Mandir in the fort, that even today proves the bigheartedness of the Mughals Emperors, This Mandir is in a space with a huge pit in it. It is said that this pit is that of Raja Loh, son of Raja Ram Chandar, who is responsible for making New Lahore. The level is same as the Fort, there is a reason for it that it is very old and Mughals left it intact. In reference to this Mandir, the society Sanatan Dharm Yudah Salba were having letters communication with the Government. So on 11th December, 1923, members of Yud Sahba, and Superintendent of Archaeology went to see the same, and this area was covered with debris, the same area was cleaned from all sides. Cleaning the Mandir or Samadh, and one can see a dilapidated dome (gum band) and under two feet one could see leaves and earth all around. This two feet deep one could see a flower. Its level is same as that of Hazuri Bagh. After cleaning and digging, on 13th December, 1923, there were discovered bones of hands which at present generation comparison, were very large, and the face had very sharp teeth which were also discovered there. After studying them it seems that at that time, humans were much taller and stronger at old days. These bones were taken into possession by Sanatan Dharm as being the bones of Loh, son of Ram Chandar. However, the Department of Archaeology thought that these bones were of pre-Buddhist times of some extra ordinary large person. “
Ahmad Hasan Dani, a world-famous scholar said the same in different terms:
In 1973 the legendary scholar of Pakistan Ahmad Hasan Dani delivered a lecture on “Al-Beruni” in the city of Kabul. Amazing that Kabul is seen as hosting a Pakistani scholar. But Kabul was a city of intellect and arts for a long time. Not surprising that it happened then. Dani Sahib in his erudite way explains everything. His dismisses the so-called connection of Loh son of Ram with Lahore and we attach the paragraph on same. Worthy of being read. But most interesting he isolates different Lahores and capitals and names. And he says that the city was founded near the river IRAWATI (present Ravi), and that is why it was called IRAWATIAWAR. It was later modified with use as RAVAWAR. He says Panini’s grammar tells us that RA and LA are interchangeable grammarian words, and that is why we have the word LAHAWAR, or presently LAHORE itself. Lahore is simply by tradition CITY ON RAVI.
If this had existed in Emperor Jahangir’s time, he would have built a grand mausoleum over it. It was certainly not a prehistoric structure and nor could one call it a Neanderthal grave. It was a combination of Sikh and British architecture for the various bricks used were of Sikh and British period. The Dome was naturally a poor fluted melon dome of the late Sikh period. It was so small in structure with a circular window on opposite end that it actually looked merely like a small well. The depth of the inside was not comprehended, and the inside floor was closed too. No one could enter it nor lit anything over it. No lingam there. It had no match with any Mandir in the world. But it was asserted as Mandir of Loh, thousands of years old. The structure was not even 150 years of age. Everybody wanted to jump to their own conclusions. The pressure of international lobby of Sanatan Dharm, founded by Bhadashi Maraj in Trinidad and Tobago in 1881, was very evidently there. The Hindu lobby was asserting itself.
Every day science is discovering missing links in human evolution. Very recently the DRAGON SKULL came out of China, and scientists excited over a new link to human story. One does not know what happened to the bones taken by Hindu lobby, but if there one could trace its DNA and finish once for all this absurd story about LOH and KASU related to Lahore. A silly hypothesis without any proof of any kind. And the amazing part is that these are the two same sons who fought with their father for questioning the fidelity of their mother after return from Shri Lanka. People do not read history, just follow directions of foreign lobbies.
DEATH AND BLINDING OF TEN THOUSAND MUSLIM MONGOLS, LAL MAHARA MAUSOLEUMS INSCRIPTIONS MONGOLIAN SCRIPT.
The history of Mongols in India is diverse. We find them attacking India and facing heavy odds here. But certain chapters are missing from usual enquiry. That Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji was kind to them, and welcomed their conversion to Islam. Delegation from Tabrez Al-Khanid was a success. Allowed to trade in the outskirts of Delhi, they were given charge of four villages in Sarhad area. All this is on record. After the death of Sultan Jalaluddin Khili, they faced different situations under Sultan Allauddin Khilji. Faced with suspicions and held in contempt too, Allauddin Khilji was persuaded to blind and assassinate ten thousand of them. It was a BLOOD INCIDENT, that is the incident of LAL MAHARA. The graveyard exists to this day, and it is the last homage to those Muslim Mongols who were martyred here on this soil.
Dr Taj Ali is a great Islamic Scholar, now retired from the University of Peshawar. He studied the Lal Mahra monuments in great depth and he had an idea that there was epigraphic evidence on the monuments themselves. He wrote this to his German university requesting research and clarification. The University was not in a position to know and this epigraphic evidence was termed as mere pseudo epigraphic evidence. Language not known or deciphered. Fortunately, I have been studying Mongols too for some time and their first great book THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE MONGOLS in Mongolian script. And I realized the Mongolian script is the actual script on the Lal Mahra monuments. It will require diligent research and a Mongolian expert to do all this but it can be done. Arghaun Khan grandson of Halaku Khan was slaughtered along with his nobility. He was even husband of a daughter of Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji. That is a brother-in-law of Sultan Allauddin Khilji. It was not possible to throw these royal bodies into dust heaps. After all they were Muslims too. Even the symbol of LAL LAGATAR can be easily understood as CONTINUOUS BLOODSHED. A reappraisal is required by scholars on our important history.
Must read: Sultan Allauddin Khilji by Dr Ghulam Sarwar Khan Niazi.