The objectivity of present western research (forget about the Indian) is questionable. So much is written about the five observatories of Raja Jai Singh and plentiful images of same, but one most important name stands missing in most research, and that is Mirza Khairullah, known also as Abu Khair, and carrying with his name, the addition of Muhandis as well as Khan, which denotes a title from the Royal Court of Emperor Muhammed Shah.
The first credit goes to Emperor Muhammed Shah, who conceived the idea of laying the basis of modern astronomical tables, based on actual readings from observatories. Order was passed on to Raja Jai Singh for same and Raja Jai Singh was given the courtier Khairullah Khan Muhandis as adviser. Not only Khairullah Khan helped in the actual construction of the five observatories around 1724 AD, but was also part of the collection of the tables for same. Whereas ZIJ MUHAMMED SHAHI is famous as the tables of same, there is a SHARH written on same by Khairullah Khan. This Sharh is mentioned by various scholars,particularly Muhammed Hussain Jaunpuri in his JAMI BAHADUR KHANEE tables. The manuscripts of these researches are present in various libraries of the world. Pakistan also has a rich treasure of same as well as the archives of Chughtai Museum. As this is an exposition article, we need not go into the details here, but we will give some details of the various ZIJS later in another blog.
The interesting part is written by analyst Jayant V Narlikar, when he says:
By observation only, in his commentary on Zij Muhammed Shahi, Khairullah asserts:
By observation only Khairullah without ant knowledge of Keplers theory, is proving same with his intellectual prowess, in his commentary on Zij-e-Muhammed Shahi.
Khairullah was student of his elder brother Imamuddin Riazi, another Master scholar of his age, whose many books were text books in various madrassahs to this date. His many books are there in manuscript form in major libraries of the world. His father Lutufullah Ahmad Muhandis another marvel of his time. A gifted Lahori family in all ways.